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Full text of "Urdu Learning through English"



LET'S 

STUDY 

URDU 

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I An Introductory ; 

Course 

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LANGUAGE 



Let's Study Urdu 

An Introductory Course 

Includes Audio DVD 

All S. Asanl and Sycd Akbar Hydcr 

let's Sillily Urdu: An fnlrodtietory Course is a comprehensive introduction to the 
Urdu language chat draws on a range of real-life contexts, film songs, and popular 
Urdu poetry. It contains a variety of aural, oral, and written drills, which, used in 
combination with ihe accompanying audio materials, will help students master 
the language while keeping them entertained. Although intended primarily as a 
text for a first-year course in the language. Let's Study Urdu provides students 
of diverse backgrounds. Including heritage speakers, the opportunity to enhance. 
their competency in basic grammatical structures so that they can comfortably 
use the language in Urdu-speaking milieus in South Asia, the Middle East. Europe. 

and North America. 

All S. Asanl is Professor of the Practice of Indo-Muslim Languages and Cultures at 

Harvard University. 

Syed Akhar llyder is Associate Professor of Asian Studies and Islamic Studies at 

The University of Texas at Austin. 



YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
NEW HAVEN AND LONDO. 



YALEBOCV 



LET'S STUDY URDU 

An Introductory Course 

Audio DVD 

An S. Asani and Syed Akbar Hyder 





i he audio files on ihis 
disc ,11 ( .ilso available 
at yalebooks.com/urdu. 
ISBN 978-0-500-11400-5 



C 2008 Yale Universiiv 
PO Box 20904O 

I laven CT 06520-9040 
yalebooks.com/languages 
All rights reserved 









Let's Study Urdu 






An Introductory Course 

Ali S. Asani 
Harvard University 

and 

Syed Akbar Hyder 

University of Texas, Austin 









Yale Uaiversily Press 
New Haven and London 



Copyright © 2008 by Yale University 

All rights reserved 

This book may not be reproduced, in whole or part, including illustrations, in any form (beyond 

that copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by 

reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers. 

Publisher; Mary Jane Peluso 
Development Editor: Brie Kluytenaar 
Manuscript Editor: Noreen O'Connor-Abel 
Production Editor: Ann-Marie Imbornoni 
Production Controller: Karen Stickler 
Marketing Manager: Timothy Shea 

Cover Design: Mary Valencia 
Cover Photograph: Michael Currier 

Printed in the United States of America. 

ISBN 978-0-300-1 1400-3 (pbk.: alk.paper) 
Library of Congress Control Number: 2006939857 

A catalogue record for this hook is available from the British Library. 

The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on 
Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources. 

10987654321 






In Mernoriam 

Annernarie Schimmel 

(1922-2003) 

who, during her lifetime, worked tirelessly to bring about a better appreciation 

of Urdu literature and its culture 



Contents 



Introduction 

How to Use This Book: A Note for Teachers and Students 
Film Sources for Songs Cited in the Book 
Chapter 1 

1.1 Word Order in the Urdu Sentence 

1.2 Conjugation of Verb t-tf and Pronouns 

1.3 Greetings and (> as Particle of Respect 

1 .4 Asking Questions 

1.5 Urdu Postpositions and Definite and Indcfiniic Articles 

1 .6 Adjectives of Nationality 

1 .7 Introduction to Possessive Adjectives 

1 .8 Pronunciation Drill: Short and Long Vowels 

1 .9 r^ (Conversation) 

1.10 Conversation Practice 
Ml Song: ft \j£ Uf 
1.12 Vocabulary 
Chapter 2 

2.1 Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives 









XXIV 
XXX 

I 

2 
7 
II 
14 
15 
17 
19 
20 



21 
2. 
22 



2.2 Cardinal Numbers 0-10 



26 



2.3 The Interrogative \^f 

2.4 The Postposition G^~ 

2.5 Pronunciation Drill - Aspirations 

2.6 Jr (Conversation) 

2.7 Conversation Practice 

2.8 Songs: \J# «>W 

2.9 Vocabulary 
Chapter 3 

3. 1 Nouns: Gender and Plural 

3.2 Attributive and Predicate Adjectives 

3.3 Marked and Unmarked Adjectives 

3.4 Cardinal Numbers: 11-20 
Ordinal Numbers: 1-10 

3.5 Pronunciation Drill: Perso-Arabic Sounds I 

3.6 r& (Conversation) 

3.7 Conversation Practice 

3.8 Songs: a~ \jfbi g 

3.9 Vocabulary 
Chapter 4 

4.1 Possessive Adjectives 






27 
27 
33 
33 
34 
35 
35 
36 



38 
42 

43 
45 
46 
50 
51 
SI 
52 
52 
53 



viii 



4.2 Asking and Telling Age 62 

4.3 Cardinal Numbers 21-30 64 

4.4 Order in a Noun Phrase 65 

4.5 Pronunciation Drills - Nasals 66 
Perso-Arabic Sounds II 67 

4.6 r^ (Conversation) 68 

4.7 Conversation Practice 68 

4.8 Songs: [J* /& ^ il » U, (J* 69 

4.9 Vocabulary 70 
Chapter 5 

5.1 The Present Habitual Tense 73 

5.2 The Present Habitual Negative 75 

5.3 Times of the Day, Days of the Week, and 

Other Time Phrases 80 

5.4 The Particle J with Temporal Words and Phrases 81 

5.5 Review of Urdu Sentence Structure 82 

5.6 The Verb C?(? with Nouns and Verbs 85 

5.7 Pronunciation Drill: Retroflexes 88 

5.8 ^"(Conversation) 89 

5.9 Conversation Practice 9° 

ix 



90 
91 



5.10 Songs: J? CH J <p Jj 

5.11 Vocabulary 91 
Chapter 6 

6.1 Postpositions 96 

6.2 The Oblique Case - Oblique Forms of Nouns 97 

6.3 Oblique Forms of Demonstrati ves 1 00 

6.4 Oblique Forms of Adjectives 101 

6.5 Oblique Forms of Pronouns 102 

6.6 Note on y «t— *& 103 

6.7 The Interrogative £j/ and its Oblique Forms 105 
6.S Note on £— I~ 107 

6.9 Pronunciation Drill: Aspirated, Perso-Arabic, and 

Retroflexive Sounds II 115 

6.10 /^(Conversaiion) 116 

6. 1 1 Conversation Practice 1 1 7 

6.12 Songs: <£_l£ <c)&l ifJJ 

6.13 Vocabulary 
Chapter 7 

7.1 Expressing Potentials with t^ 122 

7.2 sjS with Compound Verbs 



7.3 Further Uses of JlX 123 

7.4 The Present Continuous Tense 124 

7.5 The Comparative 125 

7.6 The Superlative 127 

7.7 Persian Adjectival Elements 128 

7.8 Expressing More or Less 1 30 

7.9 Cardinal Numbers 31-40 132 

7.10 Aggregatives 132 

7.11 The Future Tense 134 

7.12 Pronunciation Drill: Diphthongs 140 

7.13 Response Drill 140 

7.14 /^(Conversation) 142 

7.15 Conversation Practice 144 

7.16 Songs: {j! 2^ f P \£i 145 



4- & J ** -4 



146 



f- & d*S (& 146 

7.17 Vocabulary ,46 
Chapter 8 

8. 1 Formal Imperatives (with w- ' ) 1 50 

8.2 Informal Imperatives (with |*J 151 

8.3 Least Formal Imperatives (with V ) 1 52 

8.4 Negative Imperatives I 52 



US Songs; ££ \f a£ '$g iJX 



/in^U 



8.5 The Infinitive as Imperative 152 

8.6 Use of L/tyr' and J with Imperatives 153 

8.7 Further Uses of ti? 155 

8.8 The Past Participles of tit - I58 
8-9 The Past Habitual Tense 160 

8.10 The Past Continuous Tense 152 

8.11 Cardinal Numbers 41-50 163 

8.12 Pronunciation Drill: Doubling of Consonants 164 

8.13 r^ (Conversation) 165 

8.14 Conversation Practice 167 

8.u c : ; - __r i 7 --. ;'.v ' - 168 

168 

I6S 

8.16 Vocabulary 169 

Chapter 9 

9. 1 7 as a Temporal Marker 1 73 

9.2 / as a Direct Object Marker 174 

9.3 / as an Indirect Object Marker 176 

9.4 J in Verbal and Adjectival Constructions — J$£ 178 

9.5 y in Infinitive + *£_ Construction 180 

9.6 Infinitive as the Subject 181 



9.7 7 in e%M Constructions 182 



XII 



9.8 y with Abstract Possessions 186 

9.9 Special Object Forms 1 88 

9.10 Stem + -//<£ 190 

9.11 Noun-Verb Agreement in Urdu 192 

9.12 Cardinal Numbers 5 1-60 193 

9.13 Expressing Time with the Enclitic J l£~ 194 

9.14 /^(Conversation) 198 

9.15 Conversation Practice (I) 199 
9.15 Conversation Practice (2) 199 
9-16 Songs: <^* CU^ <£_ (j> £ ? 

(^) ?+. u it oh * 

+. t? £ 2% ^ f 

9.17 Vocabulary 202 
Chapter 10 

10.1 The Verb £lf , "To Know" 204 

10.2 Kft f¥** Construction 



200 
201 
201 



1 0.7 Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives 



206 



10.3 The Verb 1 1 and Knowledge of Learned/Acquired Skills 209 

10.4 The Verbify, "To Ask" 2U 

10.5 The Verb fy with C-~ and J 2I3 

1 0.6 The Verb C/ with <Z~ and / 2 * 5 



217 



1 0.8 Fractions and Mass Measurements 22 



xiii 



10.9 Telling Time in Fractions 223 

10.10 Cardinal Numbers 61-70 225 

10.11 r^ (Conversation) 226 



10.12 Conversation Practice 

10.13 Songs: <£- tf J? <£ 



mF ~ 



227 



229 



10.14 Vocabulary 
Chapter 1 1 

11.1 The Interrogative Ur 233 

1 1 .2 The Interrogative W 234 

1 1 .3 Expressing "To Have" 235 

1 1 .4 The Possessive Adjective ty 240 

■ 

11.5 The Reflexive Pronoun )? 242 

11.6 Noun +1)0 243 

11.7 Adjective +1/0 244 

1 1.8 Postposition or Adverb + i) h 244 

1 1 .9 Oblique Infinitive + \)b 



11.10 Cardinal Numbers 71-80 

11.11 ^^(Conversation) 249 

11.12 Conversation Practice 250 



xiv 



11.13 Songs: \Jt%{$ W 251 

\J$ f \>fii * 252 

$f$vf ^-X 252 

11.14 Vocabulary 253 
Chapter 12 

12. 1 Simple Past Tense 256 

12.2 The Simple Past Tense of Intransitive Verbs 258 

12.3 The Case of Clf "To Go" 260 

12.4 The Case of tjt 'To Be, To Happen, To Become" 261 

12.5 Relatives and Correlatives 265 

12.6 The Particles (j* and {f 270 

12.7 The Interrogative U*y 273 

12.8 Repetition of Adjectives 273 

12.9 Cardinal Numbers 81-90 276 

12.10 /^(Conversation) 276 

12.11 Conversation Practice 279 

12.12 Songs: \J (^ 2- {£* U> \S j£ ^ 28 ° 

/ J?f -/&■> ifiJf? <-/* 281 

4 */ \f h v 281 

12.13 Vocabulary 282 
Chapter 13 

13.1 The Simple Past Tense of Transitive Verbs 286 



XV 



288 



13.2 The Case of C^ <fe; *%f 

13.3 Negating the Simple Past Tense 288 

13.4 The Present Perfect Tense 292 

13.5 The Past Perfect Tense 295 

13.6 Cardinal Numbers 91-100 297 

13.7 /^(Conversation) 297 

13.8 Conversation Practice 300 

13.9 Songs: J-/U Jgxjftjit—jg 300 

£-S*l j\)\ teJg 301 

13.10 Vocabulary 302 
Chapter 14 

14.1 fc-0 Constructions 305 

14.2 Verb Stem * \$ Construction 308 

14.3 The Oblique Infinitive +!<:-> Construction 3 1 

1 4.4 Compound Verbs 

(A) Verb Stem + Aspect Indicators: cfe5* <tb ffe ) *Cs 

l^ljvl^C? 312 

(B) Verb Stem + 1 1 Construction 3 1 5 

1 4.5 Introduction to the Subj unctive 3 1 8 

1 4.6 P*> (Conversation) 323 

14.7 Conversation Practice 326 



XVI 



326 



14.8 Songs: £-Jv 9t &\ J/ w^ 

*t O i JJ&i$% *M ^^ \f 327 

14.9 Vocabulary 329 

Chapter 1 5 

15.1 Condition-Result Clauses with ./' and ? 332 

15.2 Expressing Presumptions and Suppositions with the Verb 336 

15.3 Expressing Compulsion with the Verb t/ 339 

15.4 Passives 342 

15.5 Passive Intransitive Verbs 346 

15.6 t as a Rhetorical Particle 350 

15.7 >^ (Conversation) 351 

15.8 Conversation Practice 355 

15.9 Songs: f tlf ^ ? UL> JL 356 

<z~ yLt / ' £- vUt / 357 

f Jl »>* J cJ *ZJ ol >£j OL dJJ 358 

15.10 Vocabulary 359 
Chapter 16 

16.1 The "Izafa" 362 

1 6.2 Some Common Uses of Present and Past Participles 366 

16.3 Present Participle and £?J Construction - 371 



xvii 



16.4 Present Participle and l*lf Construction 372 

16.5 Present Participle in the Narration of the Past 374 

16.6 Past Participle and vJ Construction 375 

16.7 The Uses of y jjf 377 

16.8 Emphatic Negative Assertions 378 

16.9 J^(Convcrsation) 379 



16.10 Conversation Practice 

16.11 Songs: ^\jt2Ji£—tf2~3J 381 

$ /J? j/tf Oi^r^t 382 



16.12 Vocabulary 

Reading Passages 

Reading Passage One f? £- jZ* "J 387 

Reading Passage Two \jf \J* </ V* 388 

Reading Passage Three c/.> ->l ' ./-£> 389 

Reading Passage Four L^'^"* 4~ ^90 

Reading Passage Five tffjP p3 (j 3 !? tT/f 393 

Reading Passage Six £i~ y>y 394 

Reading Passage Seven a* -/L>' 396 

Note on the Calendar 

Urdu-English Glossary 

English-Urdu Glossary 441 

xviii 



Introduction 

A member of the Indo-Aryan family of languages, Urdu is spoken by over 1 50 million people 
in many parts of the South Asian subcontinent. Designated the official language of Pakistan and 
one of the national languages of India, Urdu is also routinely spoken as a first or second 
language in South Asian diaspora communities in the Middle East, South and East Africa, 
Western Europe, North America, and Australia. Tn recent decades, Urdu has been glamorized by 
Bollywoods India's massive film industry, which routinely commissions prominent Urdu writers 
and poets to write scripts and compose song lyrics for the many movies it releases every year. 

Urdu first emerged as a literary language in the fourteenth and Fifteenth centuries when 
dialects of it (Gujri and Dakhani) were used in western and southern India for poetic 
compositions. In the late eighteenth century it received a special boost in northern India from the 
Mughal em peror Shah Alam II (r. 1 759- i 806), who had developed a special fondness for it. 
As the power base of the Mughal empire and the regional kingdoms that patronized Urdu eroded 
and finally gave way to British colon ial rule over most of the subcontinent, Urdu writers 
adamantly sought new patrons. Whether in Hyderabad or in the Punjab, Urdu demonstrated 
marked resilience in the face of political upheavals. 

Although Urdu has developed into a language with a great literary and cultural history, its 
spatial, temporal, and etymological origins are fraught with acute ambiguities, not to mention 
bitter controversies. The word Urdu itself is of Turkish origin and means "camp," most likely a 
reference to the surroundings of Delhi's Red Fort, al times referred to as urdu-e mu'alla, or 

xix 



"exalted eamp." b'or many centuries, the area around the Red Fort was an important center of 
power for Turko-Pcrsian dynasties originating in Central Asia, including the i llustrious Mughals. 
It accomodated various linguistic and cultural traditions, some of which were Persianate and 
others Indie. Toward the end of the eighteenth century, the hybrid language of this area came to 
be referred to as zaban-e urdu-e mu'alla, or "'the language of the exalted camp." This expression 
appears to have been truncated over time and simply became Urdu, which then came to signify 
the vernacular or local language spoken around the Red Fort. 

"Notwithstanding the use of the term Urdu to designate a specific language, it is important to 
remember that as late as the n ineteenth century, what we today refer to> as Urdu was also known 

as Hindi, Hindavi, Gujri, Dakhani, or Rclchta ("mixed language"). Historically, the linguistic 

spectrum encompassed by the Urdu/Hindi/Hindavi/Gujri/Dakhani/Rekhta framework has not 
"been a rigid one and the boundaries and definitions of these dialects have been relatively fluid. 
This wide spectrum not only incorporated Persian vocabulary and a few Persian grammatical 
elements (Persian being the official language at many courts in pre-colonial South Asia) but also 
embraced elements from vernacular or local languages such as Dakhani (spoken in the Deccan), 
Gujarati, Avadhi, Khari Boli, and Braj. 

The emergence of more rigid definitions of what constitutes Urdu is largely a consequence of 
British colonial policies and the growth of religiously based nationalisms in the late nineteenth 
and earEy twentieth centuries. As a result, many aspects of culture that were common to both 
Hindus and Muslims, including language, came to be perceived exclusively through religious 
lenses. Many came to believe that Urdu, because it was written in the Perso-Arabic script, 
reflected an Islamic orientation. Thus, a language that had to that point been spoken by Hindus 

xx 



and Muslims alike, and its scrip! learned by all peoples regardless of their religious orientation, 
became inextricably linked to South Asian Muslim identity. Such a narrow association of the 
language with Islam alone overlooked two important facts; first, millions of South Asian 
Muslims did not speak Urdu, and second, many Hindus were counted among its greatest poets, 
writers, and devotees. In the eyes of the religious nationalists, Hindi, on the other hand, the 
language written in the Devanagari script and drawing vocabulary from Sanskrit, came to be 
identified with Hindus. Notwithstanding these narrow demarcations distinguishing Urdu from 
Hindi, Premchand, a renowned author who has been claimed by partisans on both sides of the 
Urdu/Hindi divide to be one of their own, declared: "In my view, Hindi and Urdu are one and 
the same language. When they have common verbs and subjects, there can be no doubt of their 
being one." 

Many a writer in South Asia has continued to challenge the constraints that have been placed 
on these languages by freely mixing idioms. In response to the religious nuances that have come 
to surround both Hindi and Urdu, a handful of leaders (including Mahatma Gandhi) and writers 
(Sajjad Zaheer for instance), who were interested in fostering Hindu-Muslim unity, have 
promoted the use of the term "Hindustani" to refer to a mode of Urdu-Hindi defused of any 
religious charge. Unfortunately, the forces of communalism in contemporary South Asia have 
been so strong that this expression has failed to gain wide currency. 

A lthough in many respects Urdu and Hindi are almost identical gramatically, in today's world 
Urdu is written in the Perso-Arabic script whereas Hindi is written in the Sanskrit-derived 
Devanagari script. Those persons and institutions who wish to focus on differences tend to 
identify Urdu more with the vocabulary of Persian and Arabic, and Hindi with vocabulary from 

xxi 



Sanskrit We should remind ourselves thai these distinctions between Urdu and Hindi are from 
certain perspectives quite arbitrary and the inexorable speculations as to what extent, if any, 
these languages differ from each other can continue endlessly to no avail. 

This book attempts to steer a middle course in the Urdu-Hinds divide in that it uses, for the 
most part* words and expressions that are mutually intelligible to self-identified Urdu-Hindi 
speaking communities. In writing this book, wc have become convinced more than ever that 
languages are open-ended networks. In a language such as Urdu, cultural and temporal variations 
pave the way for growth and development. Expressions that are commonplace in Hyderabad, 
India, might be seen as archaic and even quaint in Karachi, Pakistan. In an introductory book 
such as this, it is impossible to cover all the variations in the language. Nor is it possible lo cover 
all the subtle lexical and grammatical nuances. Nevertheless, we hope (hat the course provides 
students with a strong enough foundation to pursue more advanced study. For those students 
who are interested in the highly Persianizcd form of Urdu that is commonly used in newspapers 
and journals, we have included sample reading passages at the end of the book. 

Over the many years we have labored to produce this book, we have been deeply grateful to 
our wonderfully patient students for having tolerated earlier incarnations of the present work and 
for their invaluable suggestions, We also owe a special debt of gratitude to the following friends 
and colleagues who are responsible for many improvements in this book: Gaurav Shah, Ameek 
Ponda, Lata Parwani, Naseem Mines, Shafique Virani, Neelima Sh.uk la-Bhau, Amjad ALinani, 
Alex Keefe, Herman van Olphcn, Shahnaz Hassan, Danielle Widmann, Sunil Sharma, Amy 
Bard, Azhar Abbas, Carla Peticvich, Hussein Rashid, and Michael Currier. Special thanks to Bill 

xxii 



University of Texas, Austin, for carefully reading the entire manuscript and suggesting many 
corrections that have improved the book and to Bill Countie, Tony DiBartolo, and Margaret 
Keycs of Harvard's Media Production Center for their patience in recording the audio materials 
that accompany this course. This book would not have been possible without generous funding 
from the Consortium for Language Learning and Teaching and the enthusiastic support of the 
Consortium's executive director, Peter Patrikis. 

In addition to dedicating this book to the late Anncmaric Schimmel, we also wish to 
dedicate this work to our past, present, and future students with the hope thai our efforts will 
inspire them to continue their study of Urdu and enable them to experience the trans-national and 
trans-temporal cultural traditions that Urdu embodies so well. We have given every consideration 
to first-time students of Urdu, that their experience of learning this language he both rewarding 
and enjoyable. "We hope that those who use this book will come to appreciate a language that 
many consider the most romantic in the world. 



How To Use This Book: A Note for Teachers and Students 

The overall objective of Let's Study Urdu is to make students comfortable with reading, 
writing, and speaking Urdu in everyday contexts. Although the book may be used in a variety of 
instructional settings, it is specifically designed to fulfill the needs of a first-year (26 week) 
American college-level Urdu class that meets 4-5 times per week for fifty minutes per session. 
Depending on the speed with which students master the material, it is possible to extend the use 
of this book, particularly chapters 15 and 16, to the first semester of a second-year course. For 
each classroom session, we suggest that students spend at least an hour to an hour and a half 
outside of class reviewing the material and completing the relevant exercises. The book assumes 
that a teacher who is proficient in Urdu grammar and in reading, writing, and speaking the 
language is preseni in class to provide guidance for students. In our teaching experiences, we 
have noticed that the information from this book is communicated more effectively when 
students read assigned sections before coming to class. Keeping this in mind, the book is 
designed so that students can study much of the grammar explanations on their own as 
homework and devote the time they spend in the classroom to hearing and practicing the 
language. With this approach, the amount of time that the teacher needs to spend explaining 
grammar can be kept at a minimum, with classroom contact time being devoted to fostering 
interactive and learner-centered activities. 'I Tie book is accompanied by an audio component that 
will help students develop their reading, speaking, and listening skills. 

This book assumes that students have a working knowledge of the Urdu writing system and, 
as a result, it uses almost no transliteration, To attain mastery of the Urdu script, we recommend 
the companion volume to this book, Let's Study Urdu: An Introduction to the Script (New 



XXIV 



Haven: Yale University Press, 2008). 

Format 
Each chapter is divided into several sections, with each section usually devoled to the 
introduction of a particular point of grammar or idiomatic construction. After a series of 
examples il lustrating the relevant grammar, students aru called upon to complete the relevant 
exercises, labelled as Reading and Translation Drills and Substitutions. These exercises are 
meant to reinforce the grammar that the student has learned in that section. While the Reading 
and Translation Drills stress reading and comprehension skills, the Substitutions emphasize 
writing skills as well as recall of vocabulary items. Some sections of the book include English to 
Urdu translation exercises that help students develop their writing skills and reinforce grammar 
and vocabulary. If the translation exercises are done orally, they can assist students in generating 
Urdu within limited contexts so as to improve speaking proficiency. The first eight chapters of 
the book also contain Pronunciation Drills that are designed to help students understand Urdu 
syllabification and develop greater competency in pronouncing retroflexive, dental, palatal, 
aspirated, and nasal sounds as well as those letters borrowed from Arabic and Persian languages- 
The penultimate components of each chapter are the contextual dialogues, JT^ (Conversation) 
and Conversation Practices, which integrate vocabulary with the grammar units introduced in 
the various sections of the chapter, These dialogues also help in the development of reading and 
communication skills. As the book advances and students increase thctr command over grammar 
and vocabulary, the dialogues flow more naturally. The r^ (Conversation) sections of each 
chapter are connected to each other by a soap opera-like drama featuring two characters, Raj and 
Nargis, and their families. As the Raj-Nargis romance unfolds from chapter to chapter, students 

XXV 



arc exposed to the language as it is spoken in a variety of everyday contexts. At the same time, 
the ongoing romance keeps them wondering and anticipating what will develop in the next 
chapter. These contextual dialogues are followed by popular Songs, taken for the most part from 
Bollywood, India's renowned film industry. Most of these songs, whether in excerpted form or in 
thei r entirety, are romantic in theme and their selection has been carefully keyed to the grammar 
sections. The rationale for this activity is fourfold: to develop aural comprehension skills, to 
appreciate certain flexibilities and nuances of Urdu grammar, to enhance pronunciation through 
singing, and to provide exposure to a very significant element of South Asian culture, whether in 
the Subcontinent or in the diaspora. We recommend that every class session devote at least 5 
minutes to listening to and singing these songs. Students are not expected to totally comprehend 
the songs since they often require a knowledge of Urdu-Hindi prosody to which they have not 
been exposed. We recommend that after students have mastered a song, they watch a video clip 
of it from the Bollywood film in which it appears so as to be exposed to its visual context. To 
facilitate the identification of the films from which these songs are excerpted, we have included a 
list. We hope that the list will also be helpful for those who wish to locate the lyrics of the songs 
in their entirety from various websites on the Internet. Every chapter ends with a Vocabulary 
section that lists all new vocabulary items introduced in that unit. These vocabulary items are 
also found in the English-Urdu and Urdu-English glossaries that appear at the end of the book. 
After Chapter 1 6, the book contains several Reading Passages based on radio and television 
broadcasts, newspaper extracts, popular jokes, and recipes. The passages integrate major 
grammar points of the book and are designed to further strengthen reading and translation skills 
of culturally authentic language. 

xxvi 



Suggested Teaching Strategics 

Although the book provides plenty of mechanical and structured exercises and activities, 
teachers and students are encouraged to utilize the material in the book in an open-ended and 
creative manner. The Reading and Translation Drills are not only tailored to enhance reading 
and translation skills, but they may also be used effectively in dictation and aural comprehension 
exercises. They may also be creatively transformed into games. For example, the words 
composing one of the sentences included in the drills may be written individually on separate 
index cards to create a "jigsaw" puzzle that students need to solve by reproducing the original 
sentence with the various components in correct grammatical order. The Substitutions, a less 
controlled activity, may lead students to bring in new vocabulary words, an exercise that can be 
particularly effective when they are working in pairs. The Translation exercises may be written 
by students on the board in the classroom to assess grammar, idiomatic usage, spelling, and 
competency of the script. The Jr (Conversation) and Conversation Practice sections present 
students with basic situations which they can reproduce through role-playing activities that bring 
in new vocabulary words and grammar structures from previous chapters. They can form the 
basis of skits which can be presented "live" in class or recorded on video. Students may also be 
creative in developing scenarios based on vocabulary from the songs. 

Many of these strategies lend themselves to group activities or students working in pairs to 
elicit numerous creative responses. The class can be divided into groups, with each group 
creating situations or exercises that expand upon the material that the students have encountered 
in class. Groups may also compete with each other on the basis of vocabulary acquisition and 
degrees of comprehension. Activities based on students working in groups or pairs should aim at 

xxvii 



maximizing peer-facilitated learning mat ensures in-depth mastery of the material. 

Bibliography ofWorks Consulted 
Barker, Muhammad Abd al-Rahman, etal. Spoken Urdu: A Course in Urdu. 3 vols. Ithaca: 

Spoken Language Services, 1990 [1987]. 
Barker, Muhammad Abd al-Rahman, et a!. An Urdu Newspaper Reader Ithaca: Spoken 

Language Services, 1986. 
Bhatia,Tej. A History of the Hindi-Hindustani Grammatical Tradition. Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1987. 
Bhatia, Tej, and Ashok Koul. Colloquial Urdu. London: Routledgc, 2000. 
Jain, Usha. Introduction to Hindi Grammar. Berkeley: Center for South and Southeast Asian 

Studies, University of California, 1995. 
Kalsi, A. S., et al. Modern Urdu Texts, Urdu Short Stories. London: School of Oriental and 

African Studies, 1991. 
Matthews, David J., and Mohammed Kasim. Teach Yourself Urdu. I>ondon: McGraw 

Hill/Contemporary Books, 2003. 
Matthews, David J., and Christopher ShackLe. A Selection of Twentieth Century Urdu Verse. 

London: School of Oriental and African Studies, 1 991. 
McGregor, R, S. Outline of Hindi Grammar. New Delhi; Oxford University Press, 1999. 
Nairn, C. M Introductory Urdu. 2 vols. Chicago: South Asia Language and Area Center, 

University of Chicago, 1999. 
Naim, C. M. Readings in Urdu: Prose and Poetry. Honolulu: East West Press, 1965. 
Narang, GopiChand. Readings in Urdu Literary Prose . Madison: University of Wisconsin, 

South Asia Center, 1968. 



Platts, J. A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English. 1st Indian edition. Delhi: 

Muiishiram Manoharlal Publishers, [1930] reprint 1977. 
SchimcK, Ruth Laila. Urdu: An Essential Grammar. London; Routledge, 1999. 
Shackle, Christopher, and Rupert Snell. Hindi and Urdu since 1800: A Common Reader 

London: School of Oriental and African Studies, 1990. 



xxix 



Film Sources for Songs Cited in the Book 



Chapter 

1 
2 
2 
3 
3 
4 
4 
4 
5 
5 

6 
7 
7 
7 
8 
8 
8 
9 



J ft y e J* 

f- tJf *-? #/ 4 

f-$ #i?l tMJ 

utuJt 



Film (Year) 



Chaliya(\960) 



Awara (1951) 



Shree 420 (1955) 



Lyricist 



Qamar J alalabad i 



Shaitendra 



Shailendra 



Chaudhvin ka Chand ( 1 960) Shakil Badayuni 
Ishqpar Zor Nahiih ( 1 970) Anand Bakshi 



Kabhi Kabhi (1976) 
Dil Se Mile Oil (1978) 
Beqabu(\996) 



SahirLudhiyanvi 
Am it KJianna 
Rahat Indori 



Dil hat ti mantaa nahiin (1 99 1 ) Faiz Anwar 
Private recording: Gaurav Shah 

Naseeb (198!) Anand Bakshi 

Saajan (1991) Samcer 

Aan milo sajna (1970) Anand Bakshi 

Love Story (1981) Anand Bakshi 

Private recording: Gaurav Shah 

Chhalia ( 1 960) Qamar Jalalabad i 



44*$ 



Aashiqui(mO) 
Alburn recording Aryans 
Mbhra (\994) 



Sameer 
Jai Walia 

Anand Bakshi 



xxx 



9 


V^ l£ of\ 


Aradhna(\969} 


Anand Bakshi 


9 


^e^W 


Saajan(m\) 


Samcer 


10 


*ttfd 


Bobby (1 973) 


Anand Bakshi 


10 


Jftifag 


A'Aor (1972) 


Santosh Anand 


11 


t£±r<?U& 


-4om mi/a sajnaa (1970) 


Anand Bakshi 


11 


kfi u? fdf» * 


5Ao/fly(l975) 


Anand Bakshi 


11 


Jf Jtx f> di tokjd 


Sangam <1964) 


Shaiiendra 


12 


uf' tA> liX *-' 


(Hz$f(l965) 


SahirLudhyanvi 


12 


$1*J'&j&\J*?*-j£ 


.4/-0<//wmi(1969) 


Anand Bakshi 


12 


u %/ <A Cr? 


7W(1999) 


Anand Bakshi 


13 


\$J {f dffij*£~j£ 


KabhiKabhi(\97G) 


SahirLudhyanvi 


13 


ijt j/i ** J% 


Shree 420(1955) 


Shaiiendra 


14 


lj*£ ^\ £/<-* 


Jurm (1990) 


lndeewar 


[4 


J Shifty 


4WW*K* ^e W&ritf fe 55 ( 1 967) 


Shaiiendra 


W 


x\j} tjjr\jk»ji{ji v/f' 


Dharmatma (1915) 


lndeewar 


IS 


f lv tf 5 U64- 


Dilwale Dulhaniya ( 1 995) 


Anand Bakshi 


15 


^_vt- b/^AeW 


Aij/w> Atao Pyaar Hai (2000) 


Ibrahim Ashiq 


15 


jtfc£Ji£^^ul«£Jtf$»j£J 


MughaUAzam (1960) 


Shakil Badayuni 


16 


^igi-T^^fl^^ 


Muqaddar ka Sikandar ( 1 978) 


Anjaan 


16 


tf/J^/tfuiii 


Pakeezah(\91\) 


Kaifi Azmi 


16 


J&htfjihliS^f 


G«mcjn(1979) 


Makhdum 



Mohiuddin 



XXXI 



Chapter 1 
1.1 Word Order in the Urdu Sentence 

In Urdu the normal word order in the simplest sentence, reading from right to left, is as follows: 

2 1 

Verb Subject 

lam 

Urdu sentences thus generally begin with the subject and end with the verb so that all other 
elements of the sentence fall between the subject and the verb. 

3 2 1 

Verb Complement Subject 

O* eft/* l& 

I am American. 
The complement can be a noun or an adjective: 

3 2 1 

Verb Complement Subject 

I am beautiful. 
When such a sentence is put in the negative, the verb can be replaced with the negative particle 
(J^f which can mean either "no" or "not." 



3 



Negative Particle 



uf 



Complement 



Subject 



I am not American. 
For a more emphatic lone, \J5 can be followed by the verb: 

4 3 2 



1 



Verb Negative Particle Complement Subject 

I am not American. 
For an even more emphatic tone, the negative particle {JJ can come after the verb: 

4 3 2 1 






Negative Particle 

J 



Verb 

a* 



Complement 



Subject 

J- 



1 am (definitely/certainly) not American. 
1.2 Conjugation of Verb Kitf and Pronouns 

The first Urdu verb we will conjugate is the most common verb: itf (to be), 



Translation 



I am 



You (least formal) are 



You (inTormal) are 



You (formal) arc 



Singular Forms 
Conjugational Form 

<4 



Pronoun 









He/She/It is C~ v/W 

Plural Forms 

Wc are jt fi 

A 

You are if f 

You are \Jt w I 

They are c£ #/ft* 

\J~ is the most common first person pronoun, although some people use the first person plural 
pronoun fi in contexts that require a first person singular pronoun. The use of r- in place of 
\J~ is generally considered a mark of humility, though in some instances, under the influence of 
English id iom, the substitution is used to connote the "royal we." In several regions of North 
India, people use fi in the (J~ context quite commonly. 

-U* &/& 

I am American. 

-u! <//' |« 

I am American. 
We are American, 
y is the least formal of the second person pronouns and should not be used unless one is on 
intimate terms with the addressee or unless an insult is intended. It is commonly used to address 
young children and sometimes servants as well. Interestingly , J is used when addressing God. 
In some regions, this pronoun is also used to address one's mother. 

.<£_ \h * 

You are good. 






|* is the common second person pronoun. It can be used in addressing one person or several 

persons who are younger than you or a person or persons with whom you are on fairly familiar 

terms. It is also frequently employed to address individuals of a lower social status than the 

speaker, e.g., servants, taxi drivers. 

\ 4 

You (singular) are Indian. 

You (plural) are Indian, 
is the most polite and formal second person singular and plural form. When addressed to 
one person, <—• ' expresses respect. Thus, when you speak to a person for the first few times or 
when you address a person older than yourself, ._- I should be used. In general *—■ ' can be used 
for any person to whom you want to show respect, w ' is also used to express plurality, i.e. 
"you" (plural). On account of its use both for respect and plurality, the meaning of i— * ' is 
dependent on context. For example, the following sentence has two possible meanings: 

You (respectful) are a student. 
You are students. 
Note : In highly formal speech y-- ' can sometimes be used as a third person pronoun of respect 
meaning "he or "she." This usage, which is even more formal and polite than the use of plural 
W </ 0f (see below) , is only used for persons accorded the highest degree of respect, such as 
religious personalities. Example: 

He (highly honorific) is a very famous professor. 



W / m when used as pronouns can be either singular or plural, meaning "he," "she," "it," or 
"they." Again, when used in a plural context, these pronouns can connote respect for a single 
individual: 

-c-f£ss*s 

i S r 

He is a professor. 

-Ul/^ssts 

He (respectful) is a professor. 

They are professors. 

The latter example is ambiguous because {jt can be used for a singular subject who is spoken of 

with respect or for a plural subject 

1.1 - 1.2 Reading and Translation Drill 









Translate into Urdu: 

1. He is Indian. 

2. She is Pakistani. 

3. They are Russian. 

4. You (least formal) are not a student. 

5. We are doctors. 

6. Brooke Shields is very famous. 

7. Anita is not famous. 

8. Sean Connery is very handsome. 

9. We are human. 

10. He is not Christian. He is Hindu. 



-c-jxt' 'A/ft 

i 



_r 









Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of f Jt 



6 



1.3 Greetings and [$• as Particle of Respect 

Urdu does not have a uniform mode of greeting. The manner in which one person greets another 
is contingent upon a variety of factors: the age and gender of the two speakers, prior 
acquaintance or intimacy, their educational background, and the region in which they are 
located. At times, the perceived religious identity of the person who is being greeted may also 
play a part. As a result, the several forms of Urdu (and Hindi) greetings carry overtones of social 

status, regional identity, and religious affiliation. The following are a few commonly heard 

expressions: 

1) k— Jjl (literally, "respect") and \J f wM (literally, "[my] respects are presented [to 

you])." These greetings, which are formal in tone, are religiously neutral in that they can be used 

between persons of different or identical religious affiliation. Depending on context, they may be 
said by a person of a younger age, or of an inferior social status, to an older person or one with a 
socially superior status. They are often accompanied by a gesture of respect in which the speaker 
moves his/her right hand to the forehead. Sometimes the gesture itself is used without any words 
and the act is called *fe/ \~&3 " or "LV flfr" ("presenting greetings"). If both greeters are of 
the same rank or not intimate with each other, the reply to these greetings is also wb I or 
if ' f fc_/b T . If there is a difference in rank or age, then the person with the superior rank or 
age may respond with a nod and the blessing " Sfi J 2£" (literally, "may you live long"). For 
some people w^'-> ' and y / ^'-> ' represent a formal and contrived set of greetings 
associated with the culture of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Urdu-speaking aristocracies of 
Delhi, Lucknow, and Hyderabad (India). Hence they choose not to use it as they feel it is 
outdated or old-fashioned. In contemporary Pakistan p^ {\if("saiaam alaikum") and its 



response r*iV f~ J('W alaikum salaam") have come to replace J^l and {J* f >-J>\ as 
the standard formal greetings. 

2) p^flr I (pronounced "as-salaam alaikum") or p^ {fc {"salaam alaikum") is an 
Arabic greeting meaning "peace be upon [with] you." It is a common greeting between Muslims 
in South Asia and, indeed, all over the Muslim world. The reply to this greeting is (*lr ! r- J 
(" wa alaikum as-salaam") or fit* p*J ("wa alaikum salaam") "may peace be upon you as 
well." As mentioned above, this greeting has become prevalent in Pakistan, where in some 
ultra-conservative circles it has become a marker of Muslim religious identity. It is important to 
note, however, that notwithstanding the tendency in contemporary South Asia to politicize and 
polarize greetings along religious lines, historically this is not a greeting that was exclusively 
limited to Muslims. Hence, non-Muslims in some regions of South Asia and elsewhere still 
continue to use it when greeting their Muslim acquaintances and friends. 

3) ZZ- is commonly used all over India as a form of greeting. Some consider it to be a 
customary "Hindu" greeting, although a large number of non-Hindus in India use it as well when 
greeting their Hindu friends and neighbours. J ] C~s is a s lightly more formal form of it. The reply 
to this greeting is the same: ££■ or >£-*' . These greetings are all-purpose and cover a range of 
usages such as "good morning," "good afternoon," "good evening," and also "goodbye." The 
saying of C~- is accompanied by a hand gesture: the greeter joins the palms of both hands in 
front of himself or herself. 

4) j$ and (J^ "hello" and "hi" are informal greetings common among the "English-medium" 
educated and those who want a transrehgious greeting which avoids any specific religious 
identification. In modern-day India, it is quite common to hear, especially in urban areas, the 



greetings "hello" or "hi" al the beginning of a lengthy conversation that is entirely in Urdu/Hindi. 

5) After the initial exchange of greetings, it is customary to inquire about health and well-being. 
This inquiry may take place in an informal or formal manner depending on context. In more 
informal contexts, and perhaps becoming increasingly widespread under the influence of English 
forms, the phrases B ?i$ dL ^ "ox"^si v'^sr {" (literally, "how are you?") are 
frequently used. Equally informal is the ubiquitous "S C- Jk if " literally, "what is [your| 
condition/state?" This has the same nuance as the American slang "what's up?" Usual responses 
are: H i/*T wX^ <J~" or "L% *-$ f* n (literally, "I am fine"). A slightly more colloquial 
response uses the echo compound "(J ft *Jw **\f \J** n 

6) The etiquette of formal Urdu speech requires the use of polite and even ceremonious 
language. For this reason, the question " ?<— #/ £-' /" & 'A = disposition, temperament; 
^)js = noble; literally, "[your) noble disposition?") is frequently employed. Again, eliqucitc of 

formal Urdu dictates that the reply should be modest, simple, and even humble so that one does 

• 

not actually say how one is. Thus, the typical response to "&-#/ &'/*" is "(Jty/" " thank 
you " (literally, "kindness, kind of you to ask"). One may also use % g>r* which also means 
"thank you" as a reply. Sometimes variant expressions such as "£- U \$r* " or 
" £- lib/ lS '-^" (literally, "there is God's kindness/mercy (God = ij^ (Hindu) or '-£• 
(Muslim); kindness - \/ i6\/" ».c. thanks be to God) or*£_UJ Jwl (Ui = prayers, "[I 
am fine thanks] to your prayers") may also be heard. 

7) The asking of names can also be informal or formal. The informal". <£- L/(*t 9 kf*" 
("What is your name?") is most commonly heard. In formal contexts, polite and respectful 
phrases are employed:"^ \f^i>/f\ * yf " or » 1^ if ft J- <{^'" 



(literally. "What is your noble (*-#/") name?" or "What is your auspicious (jf) name?"). 

Humility and modesty require the response to begin: "*£ ft \j£" (literally, "My name 

is )• 

8) Before taking leave Of a person, one may formally or politely ask: " ^ i ^JUj " (literally, 
"please give permission (to leave]"). Just as there is no uniform greeting when two Urdu 
speakers meet, there are no consistent words of parting, either. Traditionally " i^U *-*^" 
(literally, "God be your protector, God keep you") has been the standard form for saying 
"goodbye" among Urdu speakers, regardless of religious affiliation. With the unfortunate growth 
of religious nationalism, these words of parting have been associated by some to a Muslim 
identity. Consequently they wilt use either "J^T /"' " ("we'll meet again") or "(3^ " ("bye"). 
On the other hand, some Muslims feel that " JiiU \j& is not a strong enough "Islamic" greeting, 
since they consider the word "Im" to refer to "god" with a small "g." Hence they prefer to use 
"&j\pj%i" ("may Allah be your protector/ keep you"). As a result of right-wing religious 
influences, "JSJU^I" has become ubiquitous throughout Pakistan. In contrast, Muslim and 
non-Muslim Urdu speakers tn India continue to use "JijU '-£." 

9) The particle (> can be attached to (J^ (yes) or \J2 (no) to indicate respect for the person 
whom one is addressing. At times, the use of this particle by itself suggests affirmation of the 
validity of a statement or command: 

Is he a student? 

Yes, he is a student. 

10 



No, he is not. 

Yes, he is. 
J. can also be added as a suffix to nouns or proper names as a mark of respect, e.g., {j. if >*» 
"Gandhijii," or (/.A "Baapuujii, father," or J-t"l "Maataajii, mother." 

1.4 Asking Questions 

There are several ways of asking questions in Urdu: 

1. With a questioning intonation: 

Are you American? 
With this option no interrogative word is used and the questioning intonation consists of a slight 

rise in tone when pronouncing the complement. In this example the complement is the noun 
"American"; hence the intonation will rise slightly when the speaker pronounces this word. 

2. With the interrogative word U at the beginning of the question: 

Are you American? 
This is the simplest way of turning a statement into a question. Most questions that begin with 
if can be answered with either "yes" or "no"; hence this type of question is commonly called a 
yes-Or-no question. 

3. With the interrogative word if at the end of the statement: 



11 



You are American, aren't you? 
There is an implication in this question that the questioner already knows the answer and is 
trying to confirm it. 
4. With the interrogative word or words immediately before the verb: 

What are you? 
Note that although the literal meaning of if is "what," it cannot always be translated into 
idiomatic English. Only the U in example no. 4 can be translated into English as "what," 
Sometimes U may also have an idiomatic meaning in Urdu that is not readily apparent in the 
literal English translation . Thus, the sentence in no. 4 above could, depending on the tone and 
intonation of voice with which it was said, be a rhetorical question "What are you?" or "Who are 
you?" implying that "you are nothing." Awareness of such nuances develops gradually through 
familiarity with the language and its cultural contexts- 
5. With the use of Jif 

fjy like U is another intenogativcword.lt means "where." Like if it usually comes right 
before the verb: 

Where is he? 
1.3 - 1.4 Heading and Translation Drill 

N tg 

12 



Translate into Urdu; 



1. Arc they students? 



2. No, they are professors. 



3. Where am I? 



4. Is Nargis heautiftil? 



»f 



M ULjT J.fL 



_r 



13 



5. Yes, she is beautiful. 

6. Yes, she is intelligent, too. 

7. Where is Amit? 

1.5 Urdu Postpositions and Definite and Indefinite Articles 

I am at Harvard. 
The word "at" in the above sentence is a preposition. It is called a preposition because it comes 
before the locative noun, Harvard. Unlike English, Urdu does not have prepositions. It has 
instead postpositions. In other words, the equivalent of "in" or "at" in Urdu ( (j£) will follow 
the locative noun and not precede it: 

verb postposition locative noun subject 

I am in/at the house. 

I am in/at college. 
Note in the previous examples, the Urdu equivalents of the English articles "a," "an," and "the" 
are missing. This is because Urdu does not possess distinctive definite and indefinite articles. 
Thusy 2 * can be translated as "a house" or "the house." One way of emphasizing the indefinite 

nature of/* is by placing the numerical adjective for one "t-£ I" before it: 

J* w-X I a house or one house 
-(Jjf ifi C^o^Li thiamin a college. 



14 



1.6 Adjectives of Nationality 

Many adjectives of nationality can formed by adding "lj" to the country's name: 



<itif 


= 


6 


+ 


(yll^ Japan 


ijfo 


= 


6 


+ 


l^/jjy Russia 


'$&■>& 


- 


6 


+ 


\2p*SJk India 


6&i 


= 


6 


+ 


tJl^H Pakistan 


$L>Jk 


= 


iS 


+ 


(J*jJ% Bangladesh 


iff 


= 


1/ 


+ 


\*f& China 


kfl 


= 


6 

*• 


+ 


(^'y' Iran 



Two important adjectives do not follow this pattern: 

\^*/\ America ȣ/*' 

y/\ England $Cf*\ 

Note: (J[y*' in place of C^V*' is also acceptable. ^Uu "Britain" can also be used to refer 
to United Kingdom. The adjectives oC&l and 0%^ I refer to English as an attributive 
adjective rather than as an adjective of nationality. Thus: 

_*£- l)C&l i^)r<t g These pants are English 
1.5 - 1.6 Reading and Translation Drill 

?^. ji/J- t$f^6 

15 



Translate into Urdu: 






1 Where is New York? 

2. New York is in America. 

3. Is America beautiful? 

4. No, America is not beautiful. Canada is beautiful. 

5. Where are you (informal)? 

6. I am in a (one) house. 

7. Where is Lisa? She is at the university. 

8. Are Raj and Nargis in the house? 

9. Yes, they are in the house. 

1 0. Where is Harlem? Is Harlem in New York? 



,r 



_r 



16 



1.7 Introduction to Possessive Adjectives 

In this section, we wilJ introduce only three possessive adjectives. A more detailed discussion 
and the grammatical construction of these adjectives will be included later. Possessive 
adjectives in Urdu, as in English, come before the nouns they modify. 

Verb Complement Noun Possessive Adjective 

«=- & r* ^ 

My name is Ali. 

The three possessive adjectives introduced in this section are: 

My= <X 

Your (formal) = I^T/Y^T 

His/her (formal) or their= wl / If £/' 

1.7 Reading and Translation Drill 



17 









Translate into Urdu: 

1 . His name is Amit. He is American. 

2. Her name is Devi. She is Indian. 

3. Their house is in Pakistan. 

4. Are they Pakistani? No, they are definitely not Pakistani. 

5. What is their work? 

6. They are all students. They are Iranian. 

7. Your house is beautiful. 

8. It's your house. 

9. Where is Dacca? Dacca is in Bangladesh. 

10. She too is Sikh. She is a professor at Panjab (t— • &) University. 



19 



1.8 Pronunciation Drill; Short and Long Vowels 






Colt 


imn 2 


*SJ* 


^^^* 


C*g 


^jj> 


*<,J 


isy 


±S 


«**• 


f 


r^ 


Vf 


kr 


A 


y- 


IV 


IV 


iSs 


r> 


€ 


Ju- 




j£ 


Jl 


,/JJ* 

y 


c/u 


cA 


IS- 


Ijj 


• 


• 


^f> 


.•ft 


> 


r* 



Column 


1 1 


• 


^ 


• 


• 


r* 


f 


^ 


( J 


£ 





C fJ 


(1 


c> 


c> 


• 


• 


gt 


e? 


ijij 


eb 


tfr 


1* 


*A 


^ 


*s*0 




c^u 


4 


&* 


f- 


ju* 


-^ 


r 


^ 



•The vertical line above the letter "ye" is a sign for a special letter, "alifmaqsura, " which 
occurs occasionally in certain words of Arabic origin. It is pronounced as "aa. " The "ye" 
functions simply as a carrier and is not pronounced. Hence the last syllable in this word would be 



pronounced "saa. " Other examples are: lj~- "iisaa,"= Christ; Q)l "adnaa," = \ov/\y; ($P — 
"fatwaa, "= legal opinion based on Muslim jurisprudence. 

1.9 ^(Conversation) 

?^ Ul4»/ f J t V T _«^ ,/) ft i^ :i/0 

' Cambridge 

20 



i 



**SomerviJIe 



**» 



Kirkland Street 



1.10 Conversation Practice 



Amit: Hello, Sheila, how are you? 
Sheila; Fine, thanks. Are you Indian? 



Amit: No. I am American. I am a student at Harvard. Are you American? 



Sheila: No. I am Japanese. My house is in Tokyo. 



Amit: Tokyo! Tokyo is very beautiful. Where is your house in Tokyo? 

Sheila: My house is on Hito Street. 

Amit; What is your job in Tokyo? 

Sheila: I am a professor in Tokyo. I am at Tokyo University. 

Amit: Good! We'll meet again. Goodbye. 



Sheila: Goodbye. 



1.11 Song 



tjlossary for Song 



V% = to cheat, to deceive 
J i— *s= to everyone, to all 
fiy= greetings 



-ft l* \X 

Jt-* tJ £ ,jr* .fjsf 



21 



1.12 Vocabulary 

Note: The gender of nouns is indicated in parentheses: m -masculine; f- feminine 
again, then J^ 

all »_^ 

also, too \J* 

America (m) ~£y*' 

American lily*' t£/*j*\ 



Bangladesh (m) 


U^>'J^ 


beautiful 


jj£ / ^jr^s 


Britain 


J&4 

*• 


China (m) 


*% 


Chinese 


m 


Christian 


jt^f 


condition, slate (m) 


jt. 


Dacca (m) 


ju$ 


disposition, health (m) 


6»* 


how are you? (formal) 


***} V-A 


(lit. your noble 




disposition?) 




doctor (m/0 




England (m) 


a& 



22 



English (nationality) 


zsi 


English (adj) 


iSz/t «Mi 


English (the language) 


\SzA 


famous 


J&* 


fine 


J? 


gentleman, sir, mister 


l^t? <,^u 


give permission to leave (got to 


— * 


run) 




good; all right; o.k. 


\k 


goodbye (lit. God be your 


£*|p Ijp 



protector) 

greetings/hcllo/hi £~ <\^Ji\ <\J f^W 

to a Muslim (reply in Q*iV pi) r* r*lfr* 
parentheses) 
he/she * * b) 

his/her (formal) K/l/Yc/l 

Hindu )'j& 

house (m) ^tC**^ 

human being (m) l^L-*! 

J. 

my; mine Ljf 



in 



i* 



23 



India (m) 


\&jUtf hI&sjOj 


Indian 


dkr-s'x* 


intelligent, clever 


•* 


Iran (m) 


e/'<< 


Iranian 


dyi 


Japan (m) 


c# 


Japanese 


^ 


Jew 


\S*& 


Muslim 


eftp,^ 


name (m) 


r fc 


auspicious name (m) 


rt J 1 


(formal Hindi) 




noble name (m) 


^./0 


(formal Urdu) 




no, not 


ji >,J & 


noble, honorable 




office (m) 


• 


on 


1 


Pakistan (m) 


e*Nj 


Pakistani 


jt-4 


Russia (m) 


J>S 


Russian 


if,; 



24 



see you soon (lit. we will meet 

again) 
Sikh 
student (m/f) 

thanks (m) 

thanks (lit. kindness) (f) 



their 



&A 



university (f) 



very; many 



we 



what; also interrogative particle 



where 



work/job (m) 



you — least formal 
informal 
formal 

your (formal) 






MJ 



ift/lfcf 



*4: 



f 

t 



25 



Chapter 2 

2.1 Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives 

*/ and M function as both demonstrative pronouns and adjectives. As demonstrative pronouns 
they signify, respectively, "this/these" or "that/those," their meaning depending on context. In 
this chapter, they are used only in their singular form. Examples: 

This is a boy. -<zJ£s m 
That is a girl. ~<£_(j./ « 



This is a house. -£ — ,- - 



That is a shoe. -eZ-fc £ M 
i 



As demonstrative adjectives, * and M modify both singular and plural nouns and also mean 
"this/these" or "that/those." They are placed directly before the noun they modify. In this chapter, 
they will be used only with singular nouns. Examples: 

This boy. Jvs* 

That girl. ~0 J M 

This house. ~^A ^ 

That shoe. JTJ? M 
2.2 Cardinal Numbers 0-10 
Urdu numerals are written from left to right in their number form, just as the English ones are. 
So 45 in Urdu is Pd. In this section we will begin with the first ten numbers. 

26 



4/ i i 

i) T 2 

c£ r 3 

Aff ? 4 

ft 6 5 

^U Z 7 

>T A 8 

y i 9 

</j I* 10 

2.3 The Interrogative &f 

^)? is an interrogative meaning who/which- I",ike the other interrogative words that wc have 
encountered so far \}J*U^\ the preferred position of l^)jf is right before the verb. 

Who is Raj? 
*+.&/&» 

Who is that boy? 
If c/V is the subject of the sentence, then it is placed at the beginning of a sentence. 

fee'/ 

Who is it? 

2.4 The Postposition G-~ 

CL~ in Urdu can be translated as "from" or "since." When appearing with an interrogative word, 

27 



^- appears after it. Like \JZ. , cl~ is a postposition and occurs after the noun or interrogative it 
qualifies. An interrogative that frequently uses the postposition £Z~- is w^ or "when." ^- w^ 
is thus "since when." 

Where is he from? 
Since when has she been here? 

He has been there since (lit. for) two years. 
CL- may also be used after locatives such as "here" and "there." 

here = (Jlgl 
from here = £L~ (JljC 
there = (j[j 

from there = d-U^i 

My house is far from here. 

His/Their house is near [from] here. 
Note also the following idiomatic usage: 

far from x ■ J3J £1— x 
close to x = wl Jt/ £— x 



Z8 



2.1 - 2.4 Reading and Translation Drill 

i I ?" 

_<£_ if t) 



29 



2.1 - 2.4 Substitutions 

Replace the phrases within brackets in the following sentences with the Urdu equivalents of the 
English phrases listed below. 

-a* {*- ji£ }jt j 

from New York 
from California 

from Pakistan 

from India 

-UW (<=- J^rr ){jt jig) jt _r 

from Mumbai, in India 
from Tokyo, in Japan 
from Montreal, in Canada 

from Chicago, in Illinois 

for two years 
30 



for one year 
for three years 
for four years 

_^_ (^ Ju i/j XuS^) £-0 -r 

for nine years here 

for eight years there 

for seven years in one office 

for six years at Harvard 

not very near from there their school 
far from the office your house 
near from New York her work 
not far from the university my job 
2.1 - 2.4 Translations 



1. What is this? 

2. This is a horse. It is my horse. 

3. Where is Ali from? 

4. Ali is from France. 

5. Where in France is he from? 

6. He is from Paris. 

7. How long have you been here? 

8. We have been here for ten years 






31 



9. Is Boston far from New York? 

10. No. It is not very far. 

1 1. Who is Sheila? Sheila is a student. She is from Japan. 

12. Where is that shoe? 

13. This girl is very intelligent. 

14. Their house is near New York. 

15. His heart is not here!! 



2.1 - 2.4 Questions 

Answer the following questions in complete sentences. 



?4_ jiu firs' -Tj/ -a 



32 



2.5 Pronunciation Drill - Aspirations 



Column 2 




Column 1 


y 


c/ 


A 


< 


y 


c£ 


M 


4 


$/ 


*/ 


A 


4 


J 


/ 


irftf 


4 


&J 


ttV 


J* 


c? 


\f/ 


1'/ 


&? 


B* 


Jte 


A 


V& 


llf 


t\f 


HT 


ft 


Vr 


fl/ 


0/ 


tirf 


DA 


/ 


cT 


ik 


Jlf 


/ 


c^ 


Jif 


J^ 


Jl/ 


JK 


H 


ty 


Jy*J 


J>J 


f> 


r* 


c# 


a 


fl»y 


r" 



2.6 -t 4 ^^ (Conversation) 



33 



-f- **/•*> ^.o^jt £,\ J^y. :J} 



Ttff «- ^/jf 4>l wt :^i 



'V. 



y 



-U-* /% U^ {/ -L/j* <=- Jlr J"T jb j/ :l/0 

_£_ i/Oiiy /#** &g& _ jT _j£< !l£i :^i ^,y 

~c~ jjy ^. w 

2.7 Conversation Practice 



y 



yy 



Rob: 



Hello, who are you? 



Stranger: Hello, hello. My name is Jay. I am a tourist officer here. Are you from 



America? 



Rob: What?! No. I am from Canada. Canada is close to America. 

Stranger: Yes, yes. Canada is very famous. What do you do [lit. what is your work] in 

Canada? Are you a doctor? Are you a computer software engineer? 
Rob: No, f am a professor. How long have you been a tourist officer? 

Stranger: I have been a tourist officer for nine years. I have been in Delhi for ten years. 

I low long have you been in Canada? 



Rob; 



I have been in Canada for seven years. Is Jaipur far from here? 



34 



Stranger: Jaipur? Yes, yes. Sir, what is Jaipur? 

Rob: Oh no! Are you really (U '9 ) a tourist officer? Jaipur is very famous. Ft is in 

Rajasthan. You are not a tourist officer! You are a vagabond! Where are the 
police? 
Stranger: Yes, I am a vagabond. Goodbye, sir! 

Rob: Goodbye! 

(Rob runs from the stranger) 

2.S Songs 

(Jjf tjj 

on w % e«rf 



Jlu + tM \j£ (r 

if jw J/ Ju £. / 

Jt>j^ <c_ J; t/ X 



Glossary for Songs 

\JiJ^ revolving, turning, wandering (0 4r = on ( a ' ternale ^ 0rrn <*£-£) 

CjlrT= sky, heaven (m) if* A = yet, still 

'yfc*=star(m) 



35 



2.9 Vocabulary 


boy (m) 





eight 


rs 


far 


jsi 


five 


ii 


four 


* 


from 


e- 


from where 


<=^ ij 


girl(f) 


& 


hat(f) 


6J 


head (m) 


/ 


heart (m) 


& 


here 


uk 


horse (m) 


is/ 



near 



one 

pants, trousers (f) 



seven 



y 



president (m/f) JJ^ 

red Jl) 



shoe(m) fc"£ 



36 



since when 



Six 



*/ 



sky(m) 


cA-i 


star(m) 


ue 


ten 


j/j 


that, those 


» 


there 


i^j 


thing (f) 


* 


this, these 


g* 


three 


rf 


vagabond, wanderer (rn) 


jjijf 


when 


* 


who 


ei/ 


year(m) 


tfj!/J\>> 


yet, still 


tf A 


zero 


/f 



37 



Cbapler3 

3.1 Noons: Gender and Plural 

All nouns in Urdu are either masculine or feminine. Within the category of each gender there are 
two more categories: marked masculine nouns - those ending in the letter "alif ( - (e.g. V/ 
"boy") and unmarked masculine nouns - those ending in with any other sound - (c.g.y* 
"house"); marked feminine nouns - those ending in "ckoTH ye" {J - ( e.g. \j/J "girl") and the 
unmarked feminine nouns - those ending with any other sound - ( e.g. jL "thing"). As a rough 
guideline you should remember that most nouns that end with ' are masculine and those that end 
with O are feminine. There are important exceptions to these rules: O* (water), C?^ (brother), 
0* ) (yogurt) are masculine whereas **% (air, wind) and Ui (world) are feminine. 





Common Marked Masculine Nouns 


boy 





shoe 


H 


dog 


r 


banana 


*r 



The word final long "aa" vowel that is normally indicated by the letter "alif I at the end of 
words is indicated in some words by the letter "choTii he" fl. Therefore, nouns ending in this 
letter are usually considered as marked masculine nouns. For example: 
rent vOf 

38 



wonder, wink, charm 

precious Stone ^Z 

song, melody *■? 

Note: The noun Jf (place) is one of the few exceptions to this rule. Even though it ends in a 
"choTii he" it is a feminine noun. 

Forming Plurals of Marked Masculine Nouns 

To form the plural of marked masculine nouns the final "alif is changed to "e" i.e. "baRii ye" 

boys £-s 

shoes fc— £ 

dogs Sl- 

bananas 4r" 

Nouns that end in "choTii he" in the singular may retain this letter in the plural since this letter, 
in the word final position, may also be pronounced as V" Alternatively, the "choTU he" may be 
replaced by a "baRii ye" 



rents 



m m 

% f * f 

wonders, winks, charms C--s, ~f S, 

precious stones ^-~ fit 

songs, melodies 



£ J 



39 



Common Unmarked Masculine Nouns 



office 

house 

house, buildings 

name 

year 



/ 



Forming Plurals of Unmarked Masculine Nouns 

Unmarked masculine nouns in the plural are written and pronounced in the same manner as in 
their singular counterparts: i.e., they show no change. For example: 



Singular 



Plural 



office 


t> 


offices 


house 


j 


houses 


name 


ft 


names 






r e 



Common Marked Feminine Nouns 



girl 
bread 
hat 
sari 



¥ 



Forming Plurals of Marked Feminine Nouns 

Marked feminine nouns, that is those that end in "choTii ye," form their plurals by the addition of 
{J* at the end of the singular noun: 



40 



girls 
breads 
hats 
saris 



U\f&/d dis- 



common Unmarked Feminine Nouns 



thing 
night 
world 
table 



Z 






X 



Forming Plurals of Unmarked Feminine Nouns 

Unmarked Feminine Plurals are formed with the addition of (_£ to the singular noun: 

things iZ3 

nights (J- (/ 

worlds di \? J 

tables \XX 



Summary of endings of singular and plural nouns 



Type of noun 
Marked masculine 
Unmarked masculine 
Marked feminine 

Unmarked feminine 



Ending in singular 


Ending in plural 


"aa" ' or a 


,r e" <i_ 


any except "aa" 


no change 


"ii" {j 


M iaan' , (Jl 


any except "ii" 


"eh" J m 



41 



3.1 Translation 

Translate the following words into Urdu and provide their Urdu plurals and gender: 

1. house 7. boy 13. hat 19. night 

2. human 8. girl 14. dog 20. orange 

3. actor 9. horse 15, apple 21. room 



4. office 

5. student 

6. work 



10. shoe 

11. thing 

12. year 



16. bread 

17. carpet 

18. banana 



22. photograph 

23. store/shop 

24. table 



3.2 Attributive and Predicate Adjectives 



The attributive adjective in Urdu, as in English, comes immediately before the noun it modifies. 







noun 



attributive adjective 



a good boy 



On the other hand, when the adjective follows the noun or pronoun it modifies it is a predicate 
adjective. In Urdu, a predicate adjective occurs in a sentence whose main verb is t.K . It comes 



after the noun/pronoun it modifies but before the verb. 

2 



predicative adjective 



1 



noun 



Attributive 



42 



That is a good boy. 
Predicative 

That boy is good. 

He is good/fine. 

-<Jif 1*1 ji 
I am good/fine. 
3.3 Marked and Unmarked Adjectives 
Urdu has two kinds of adjectives: the marked adjective and the unmarked adjective. 

Marked adjectives 
Marked adjectives agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. When modifying a 
masculine singular noun, they end in "alif f ; in "baRii ye" *1~ when modifying a masculine 
plural noun; and in "choTii ye" lj when modifying a feminine singular or plural noun. 
Masculine singular: 

Good boy W 

* - 
Good office f> 14' 

Masculine plural: 

Good boys H^'£j 

Good offices f* <£j 
Feminine singular: 

Good girl (£?(jH 

43 



Good things % Q*l 
Feminine plural: 

Good girls \j\f$ (f*\ 

Good things kJ m % J^i 
The marked predicate adjective, like its attributive counterpart, agrees in number and gender 
with the noun/pronoun that precedes it. 

This boy is good -£L- \#J By ^ 

These boys are good -ijt <fD ^L--/ ^ 

This girl is good -^(T' J * 

These girls are good -{Jt [)*\ \Jf\J J ^ 

Unmarked Adjectives 
Unmarked adjectives are those that do not end in one of the marked endings: "alif ', "baRiiye" 
^-, or "choTiiye" {j. Regardless of the gender or the number of the noun they modify, they do 
not change their form. 
Masculine singular: 

Handsome boy vs &jf^? 

Clever shopkeeper tib&QJ j\s*yt 

Red apple w^ J if 

Masculine plural: 

Handsome boys £~S C^jr^A 

Clever shopkeepers J~b (J&S As ''ft 

Red apples w^ ijv 

44 



Feminine singular: 

Beautiful girl \$$ CsJr*!? 

Clever wife \$Jg AP& 

Red book wlXJj 
Feminine plural'. 

Beautiful girls QVs CZsJ^f 

Clever wives jt-5* >Jf-# 

Red books jffi JiJ 

3.4 Cardinal Numbers 11-20 






t J\f 

•• 


II 


• 


ir 


>M 


ir 


**€ 


ir 


u-* 


16 


J^ 


n 


^ 


U 


wfa& 


IA 


U&\ 


to 


ut 


t* 



Note: The spellings of numbers from 11-18 end in "choTii he" o. These numbers are pronounced 
the same way as they would have been if they ended in "alif '. They do not inflect to agree with 
number and gender of nouns they modify as they function as unmarked adjectives. 



45 



Ordinal numbers 1-10 

Ordinal numbers usually act as marked adjectives and decline in number and gender according to 
the noun they modify. 



Masculine singular 


Masculine plural 


Feminine 
singular and plural 


Number 


% 


^ 


& 


first 


\f» 


<-/» 


!$/■» 


second 


\A 


*• 


tA 


third 


04 


£.% 


ift 


fourth 


ui4\ 


u4k 


u4k 


fifth 


H 


* 


t* 


sixth 


u$\s 


i&V 


u^ 


seventh 


ijt/1 


jjr 


dj'\ 


eighth 


uu 


& 


oj 


ninth 


O^y) 


\jjf) 


Us> 


tcntli 



From number 7 onward you can see a pattern of attaching the suffixes (?vaah" "ven" "vim*') 
\J^5 < \J^3 < (Jb to the number in order to get its ordinal form. With a few exceptions, this 
remains (rue with all numbers higher than seven. When these suffices are added to the numbers 
11-18 which end in a "ckoTiihe" one has the choice of retaining or dropping the "choTii he." For 
example: 



eleven tj\J eleventh 0^ J % <* U^^ 



46 



3.1-3.4 Reading and Translation Drill 

10 tt 






-e J> i& tf 
_<j? £^ *_* - 

-$. u^ fcf w 4/ 

-t- J*I &>J Jf' - r 

-f- lK <3" rf 

fcf. .JU Jg g- t)f J* 
_l^ .JU c£g * -wt> *(^ J 

-^ .JU. c^i ^J Us -0 
_<£_ l£ c<< j>> \/» 
?*. (ft if- j> \/£ '\f 

f\f *£-&€&&£ 

- / t 



^ 



47 



-ul UX (fi * 

-£- ijfi */*% 

-^ AA* J* _^ 

3.1-3.4 Substitutions 

Substitute the adjectives and/or nouns in brackets with the Urdu equivalents of the English 
words indicated below: 

-^ («i) aye J* -I 

handsome 
intelligent 
tall 
famous 

good 
48 



49 



intelligent 
tall 

young (small) 

good 

yellow 

expensive 

cheap 

-^ (Jtl) &g « -f 
yellow 
good 

expensive 
cheap 

black 

round 

expensive 

bcautifiit 

.^ (t0 do (Hf ) -i 

second boy He 

third doctor Alt 

fourth student I 



* 







sixth student Michelle 






-^XfoUXu -Z 






inside 






above 






fifth 






small 






round 




3.5 Pronunciation Drill: Perso-Arabic Sounds I 


Column 3 


Column 2 


Column 1 


'/" 


lijltf 


&$ 


i/ 


*y? 


f\ 


• 




Ml 


dM 


^u 


* 
• 


J* 


& 


J7 


f 


*-/ 


\}frt 


bJ- 


r^ 


S 


tjJri 


£JG 


ji; 


of* 


'J* 


Jfy 



k>?( c^C uif 

* 



50 



i p ,' rawSSvmt l 



3.6 Jr^ (Conversation) 

-t# £i o,< J< v -<p- u? ^ ««// v ij7 -Mi efljj 

^<4 (S'/tf -t| -Sar «?J -c/fc J. :llls u&j 



3.7 Conversation Practice 



_<-. ^ ^ C>^ _^ [fe^ :t/y 

?l£ ^ 4/yf jt q?J \J£$ HAi :DU oifo 

-i$ -''-iy* ^ cv 4- c - —^ ^^ ^ 

!c^ *JU e/& » %#- 



Tourist: This store is very good. 

Guide: Yes, but (J 1 ) this is an expensive store. The fifth store over there is cheap. 



Tourist: Is it clean? 

Guide: Yes, it is clean and very big. 

Tourist: What are those big yellow things? 

51 



Guide: 

Tourist; 

Guide: 



These arc delicious oranges and those are delicious red apples. 

Are the oranges expensive? 

No, they are very cheap. The apples are also cheap. This bread is also 



delicious. 



Tourist: 

Guide: 

Tourist: 

Guide: 

Tourist: 



Guide: 



Who is that beautiful girl in the picture? 

That is Madhuri Dixit. She is an actress. She is very famous. 



Is she Punjabi? 



No, she is from Maharashtra. 



Maharashtra is in India. Mumbai and Bollywood are in Maharashtra. There are 

many beautiful actresses and handsome actors in Bollywood. 

Yes. The actor in that picture over there is Shahrukh Khan. He too is very 



famous. 



3.8 Songs 









(r 



55 



Glossary for Sgn^s- 



JA 


round, circular; a circle (m) 


<-*- 


dear one ( 


ft* 


cover; case; sheath (m) 


Jih 


— holJow 


A.)- 


1 see (informal imperative) 










3.9 Vocabulary 






above 








absolutely, completely 






actor 




Mm 




actress 




»&* 




apple (m) 




■^ 




banana (m) 




a 




big 




BK 




black 




wr 




blue 




M 




book(0 




UsC 




bread (0 




6iJ 




carpet (f) 




ocV 




cheap; inexpensive 




b~- 




clean 




wJU 



cow(f) 
delicious 
dog (m) 



Mr 



53 



eighteen '■^ 

eighth lV? 

eleven *■*£ 



expensive 

fifteen »*$ 

fifth u*4\ 



first 


H 


fourteen 


»$ 


fourth 


y% 


fruit (m) 


Ji 


hospital (m) 


J^ 


inside 


JJS) 


job/work (m) 


6fi 


mad, ecstatic; crazy 


JO 


Maharashtra (m) 


,/w 


night (0 


*,tj 


nineteen 


U%> 


ninth 


jrj 


orange (m) 


wfyr 


picture/pholograph (0 




room (m) 


M * 


round, circular; a circle (m) 


JZ 



54 



second; another \f$ J 

seventeen off 

seventh {J$ ^ 

shop/store [^&*/fcJ S5 

shopkeeper/store owner tflj &fo)tllh&tfj 



sixteen 
sixth 
small 
table (f) 
tall 



twenty 






U 



tea(f) <UU 

tenth J'^ 

third Ij4 
thirteen 0y£ 

twelve W \ 



u% 



white -j^ 

wife(f) t&gf 

world (f) Ui 

yellow «Jr 



55 



Chapter 4 
4.1 Possessive Adjectives 

The postposition D (and its forms y and Z— ) arc used lo form possessive adjectives in Urdu. 
in Urdu functions roughly like "of or "apostrophe s, 's" in English. Like a postposition, it 
follows a noun or a pronoun. When it follows a noun or a pronoun, the tf and its preceding 
noun/pronoun is transformed into a possessive adjective or an adjectival phrase: 

J * * v r 

[nolin] [possessive postposition] [pronoun] 
(your house) 
In the above sentence Dw ' is a possessive adjective. In Urdu, possessive adjectives are marked 
adjectives that reflect the gender and number of the item(s) possessed. The gender and number 
of the possessor has no impact upon the possessive adjectives. Possessive adjectives, like their 
attributive counterparts, precede the nouns they modify. Thus, if the possessed object is 
masculine singular* the relevant noun/pronoun is followed by the possessive particle If: 

Your shoe IT JZ v w ' 

All's shoe t£ tf if 

Radha'sshoe t*J? t Mj 
In the above examples, because tTi^ the possessed object is masculine singular, it is preceded by 
the masculine singular form of the possessive particle (?. if the possessed object is masculine 

56 



plural, then it is preceded by the masculine plural form of the possessive particle c— : 

Your shoes Z — £ ^L- u^T 
Ali's shoes L-£ £- {f 

Radha's shoes Z~-£ *L- \f>$J 
If the possessed object is feminine singular or plural, then the possessive particle \j precedes it: 

Your thing ^ \j w' 

Ali's thing 
Radha's thing 

Your things 
Ali's things 
Radha's things 






When 



(3 ( *~ *w follow pronouns, they have special forms. Below is a list of these special 



forms. Only the pronoun *-* ' does not change its form with the possessive particle. 



— 

4 



* 


+ 


J. 


6 


+ 


lA 


£. 


+ 


J- 


i 


+ 


7 


if 


+ 


3 


£ 


+ 


>■ 



57 



1/1/ 

a? 

id 

Swi 
Cm 

4 i\a 



i 


+ 


f 


S 


+ 


•• 

f 


c 


+ 


f 


% 


+ 


J 


s 


+ 




c 


+ 


* 


i 


+ 


(singular) 03 


s 


+ 


(singular) 09 


c 


+ 


(singular) 03 


t. 


+ 


(plural) 03 


6 


+ 


(plural) M 


L 


+ 


(plural) 09 


i 


+ 


(singular)-/ 


6 


+ 


(singular)v 


C 


+ 


(singular) v 


1 


+ 


(plural)^ 


6 


+ 


(plural)^ 


L 


+ 


(plural)^ 


i ■ 


+ 


f 


J 


+ 


f 


L 


+ 


- f 



53 



4.1 Substitutions 

Replace the words in brackets with the Urdu equivalents of the English listed below: 

his 

her 
our 
your (formal) 

their 

my 
your (informal) 
its 
his 
her 

-^ i* && (fi/f) Jr 

my 
our 
your (least formal) 
their 
her 

my 



his 

Ravi's 

Stephanie and Lisa's 
your 



-ui otft Ufa? 0$ ut» -* 



Amitabh Bacchan's 
Madhuri Dixit's 
our 



their 
her 
4.1 Reading and Translation Drill 



GO 



-if d&t if * 

-^ &Af -r 

i 

*4tf B« Ufcfc LfV 

Fill in the blanks wilh appropriate possessive adjectives and then translate into English. 

<my) -<~ M <z~ U^s" -' 

(our) ~c| &J&? Oft US - r 

(his) -^ citlf ttt ~r 

(their) ~l£ jJt^A** L/UJ 5 - r 

-t4 lP «* c#T J* 



(our) 

(her) 

(your, least formal) 

(my) 



(your, most formal) -^ wpy c^< fi- U / ^7 ,, - , -* 

(your, informal) *4j* ifi C/M *— J^ \J * dS**" 1 ** -J* 



61 



4.2 Asking and Telling Age 

Note : Many people in South Asia, as in many Western nations, do not consider direct questions 
about their age to be polite or in good taste. Although it is crucial to learn how to make such 
inquiries, students should be aware that this kind of question should not be undertaken casually. 
Generally speaking, asking the age of young children or people younger than one's self is 
considered acceptable. For older persons or people whom one does not know well this may 
become a sensitive issue. 

A sking Age 
The sentence pattern used to ask a person's age is as follows: 

4 3 2 1 

V^_ U r Possessive adjective 

declined to modify a 
feminine noun. 
The possessive adjective is declined in the feminine form because / the noun for "age" i 
feminine. 

What is your age? 

What is his/her age? 
Alternatively, one may ask age by using a variation of the expression Jv" '£- "how many 
years." In this case, the word JU is followed by appropriate form of tJ<Z~<D agreeing with 
the subject. For example: 

62 



IS 



How old are you? [lit. how many years are you?] 
How old is he/she? [lit. how many years is he/she?] 



Telling Age 






The usual pattern for telling one's age is as follows: 






4 3 


2 


1 


verb agreeing with (J<^-<0 


# of years 


subject 


subject agreeing with subject 


and (JL-* 





I (masculine singular) am 20 years old. 

Sheila is 10 years old. 

We (masculine plural) are 15 years old. 
j» 
One may also tell age by using the noun / with the appropriate possessive adjective, but this is 

less common. 

I am 20 years old [lit. my age is 20] 

_ c. JU- J,/ 6 & 

Sheila is 10 years old [lit Sheila's age is 10] 



4.3 Cardinal Numbers 21-30 





Ji 


h 




A 


rr 




U* 


rr 




l£% 


rr 




J& 


r& 




J* 


ri 




o*-& 


r^ 




\j£\h 


TA 




o#\ 


M 




H 

uT 


r* 


4.2 


• 4.3 Reading and Translation Drill 






,^_ % Ju J$\ *»"» \y£ 


j 




v^L/ /L r v r 






-Jjr if JU t/4 it 






?<p l// (/cTt 






~f- 1( Jk i/f &u 


_r 




?*- £ Jls U$4 fy <*/ 






-Ul £- \jy Jj? •sfti i—j£ 






l«f // ifwi 






?+. \S/£& JV 


J* 




-tf- (J (JU- {/!« « 





64 



_tf_ if Ju- \j&\ Joe 13 iTc/f j* 
-«=_ tTjw- of" c^ tf* 6 df 
n+. $ Ju Jy f ? .\/ 

Translate into Urdu: 

1. Is his older sister twenty-one years old? 

2. My sister and 1 are twenty-five years old. 

3. How old are you? 

4. These are twenty-eight delicious oranges. 

5. Are these thirty red apples? 

4.4 Order in a Noun Phrase 
Thus far we have learned that nouns may be preceded by various elements including possessive 
adjectives \ofaU 'Ou-''^), attributive adjectives KJ^ftt ( \fi)X demonstratives \m <«), 
and numbers. They may sometimes be preceded by interrogatives as well. Examples of some 
interrogatives that frequently precede a noun incLude i*)j (who, which), t-'V (which one), fc*{ 
(how much, how many), and Ur (what kind or sort of, how). (Note: U: *v* «Wj are marked 
interrogatives; the "aa" ending, as in the case of marked adjectives, may change to "i"/" or "e" 
depending on the gender and number of the noun that follows.) When a noun is preceded by two 
or more of these elements, the following order should be observed: 

65 



Noun Attributive Adjective Demonstrative, Possessive Adjective 

Interrogative, 
Number 
Examples: 

That clever son of mine (lit my that clever son) is here. 

-o£ jj£ tj£- Jyf >> 6v s 

Nargis' two younger sisters are pretty. 
(Note: JJ> is used here as a predicate adjective and hence follows the noun.) 

4.4 Translation Drill 
Translate the following sentences into idiomatic Urdu: 

1. Which beautiful daughter of his is an actress? (use if * for which) 

2. Nilufer's second blue carpet is from Iran. 

3. Those two big black dogs of yours are no good! 

4. These seven-year-old yellow photographs, on the table, are mine. 

5 . All of Reshma's elder sisters are very tall. 

6. How many of Raj 's crazy friends are in America? 

4.5 Pronunciation Drills - Nasals 



Column 4 


Column 3 


Column 2 


Column 1 


e* 


Jj 


UM 


J> 


&£ 


M 


(JfS 


Jj 


Jf 


J\ 


U\> 


J*. 



S6 



tt 


zA 


uk 


Jb 


J& 


J} 


(J* 


Jt>i 


t 


fa 


W 


J? 


lA- 


Jffr 


Ur 


4 


Jk 


Jtf 


0» 


jaf 


p 


Jtt 


OH 


0% 




Perso-Arabic Sounds U 




Column 3 




Column 2 


Column 1 


*& 




m 


• 


& 




P 


J* 


Jbm 




&9 


• 


<*>£ 




f 


**M 


J$l 




# 


jjs 


Ot) 




J9 


J 


? 






tff 


&h 




dbr 


r*i 


/i? 




c/yir 


*# 


3' 




^k? 


<M> 


jjfi* 




f& 


<* 


J» 




j 


A- 


IM 




^-v 


/* 



4.6 3r^ (Conversation) 

".^ JU \f-& ifj jf ybf :&)./ 

-d <=- J^ l/l ok i# Jx -»' Jk ^x ; c/; 

f, 6 JU i/i /^ -f- IfJU" lA V <f- ^ Jt" 0?4 j£ :i/0 

if JU I/***) .J/* (/ !o* U^ if JU Uf L* -t^ -C^ : J 1 ' 

_<p IT - JU i/^'l (/ £C =8* 

? ^_ U& Off fff l\f 

-u% efue |* -c^ W4 /*Y&i» >;< <j* i^ if ^ u* -t^ : - j/ 

4.7 Conversation Practice 
Steve: Hello. I am Steve. I am from New York. Where is Sheila? 
Seema; Sheila is not at home. I am her sister Seema and this is our little brother Babu. 
Who is he? 

68 



■4 



Steve: This is my friend Amar. This is his cat Dimple. 

Secma: Hello, Amar. Dimple is very beautiful* How old is she? 

Amar: She is five years old and she is veiy smart. 

Babu: I also am five years old and I am very smart! 

Seema: Where is Dimple from? She is not an Indian cat! 

Steve: She is from Afghanistan. She is an Afghani cat! 

Seema: Amar, are you from Afghanistan? 

Amar: No, no, I am from Bangladesh. 

Babu: Is Bangladesh far from India? 

Amar: Bangladesh is very close to India. It is a very beautiful country. 

Babu: My sisters and I are from India. There are no good cats in India, 

Steve: Well! We've got to run. We'll meet again. Goodbye! 

Seema: Yes, we will meet again. Goodbye! 

Babu: Goodbye, little Dimple! 

4.8 Songs 



$~ &fl$j£ d » ii 

f- #* \$X d»d 
-f- jt* 6y£ d « d 

d/ ( * if &&4$ 



69 



\$y** if* <# 1)3 if- 

ft if' <J*> O" 






!,>* ty* !,/* — Uf <u.jZ ^'f 

Glossary for Songs 
CP = existence (0 \y h f ) = heartbeat (0 

\£ ~ eye (m) .J*^ = flame, spark (m) 

\J m = kohl, collyrium (m) r* = dew, dew drop (f) 

^a)j = curl, tress (f) fjfi = companion, bosom friend (m/f) 

lJ5 I = hem of sari, veil, or shawl (m) y = coquetry, flirting (m) 

4.9 Vocabulary 
age(f) / 



brother (m) $K 

but/however \Jy 1/ 

car(f) \$/t 

cat(f) L^ 

country (m) 1— LI* 

70 



danger (m) 


./* 


daughter (f) 


i 


elderly (adj.); elderly person 


M 


friend (m/f) 


o^ij 


ghazal (love poem) (f) 


&/ 


how much, how many? 


£«$*( 


life (f) 


4n 


moment (m) 


d 


more, additional (adj.) 


j,< 


old (thing) 


m 


only 


jj 


pen (m/f) 


f 


poet (m) 


& 


sister (f) 


i^fi* 


sometimes 


J 


story (f) 


aw 


thirty 


L* 


this much 


Pi 


twenty-one 


^ 


twenty-two 


iA 


twenty-three 


u* 


twenty-four 


utf, 



71 



twenty-five 


u% 


twenty-six 


J* 


twenty-seven 


ij& 


twenty-eight 


j*\}\ 


twenty-nine 


uf) 


what sort of, what kind of, how 


*?W 


young (adj.), youth (m/f) 


dif. 


youth, youthfulness (f) 


j»j> 



72 






Chapters 
5.1 The Present Habitual Tense 

Verb Infinitives 

All verb infinitives in Urdu end in t. For example: 

to read/study fc*^ 

to go tlf 

to do LV 

Urdu Verbal Stems 
In order to derive the stem (sometimes also called the root) from the infinitive, the ending t is 
dropped. The stem of fc*-£ is thus £»./ , that for tv is U, and that for %J is J . 

The Present Habitual Tense 
To conjugate verbs that indicate actions that occur in the present or are habitual or frequent, the 
suffixes y <<i— *tr, are added to the verbal stem to create the present participle. The choice of 
suffix is determined by the number and gender of the subject of the sentence. Thus t* is the 
suffix for the verbal stem if the subject is masculine singular, ^— if it is masculine plural, and 
for both feminine singular and plural subjects. To complete the tense the appropriate present 
tense of the tfi verb also needs to be added. For example, the stem of the Urdu verb "to read or 
study" is &5 1 . In order to say "he is reading or studying" we add the suffix F to the verb stem 
(since the subject is masculine singular) to get &**£ which grammatically is the masculine 



73 



present participle. To this is added £— the present tense of the verb tyt corresponding to the 

subject "he." The result is the sentence £- C>> M which means "He reads/studies." Note: 

The present habitual tense does not denote that the subject is currently engaged in a particular act 

or process (e.g. he/she is reading). For this situation there is a separate tense, the present 

continuous, which will be introduced in Chapter 7. The following table illustrates the 

CO-njUgational forms of the verb &•£ in the present habitual: 

Verbal Infinitive: b*!? 

Stem; ^> 
v 

Urdu Feminine English Urdu Masculine 

Singular 

-jjM (jT> jt I study. 

-£- (jT> ? You (least formal) study. 

-i* J*> r You (informal) study. 

-1$ 3°% ^ You (formal) study. 

^ 1?% »* He/she studies. 

-t$ $*% f We study. 

-yt (jl£ r You (informal) study. 

-l£ <?"■£ ^' You (formal) study. 

-t£ U £ W They study. 

Note: In Urdu, the verb t(f, "to go" does not need a postposition "to." 



,u>f t>> iji 


_^o>y 


-**tl ? 


-ttf 2t> w-T 




~Ul ^> f 7 


-jf&fcr* 




-c| 2E-2 H 



7-4 



We go to college. 

Do you go to the movies? 
5.2 The Present Habitual Negative 

In negative sentences, the negative particle ij$ is placed right before the conjugated present 
habitual verb and the auxiliary (the form of %& ) is dropped unless the tone is emphatic: 

J>% d$ J"- 

I don't study. 

I don't study (emphatic). 
For still more emphasis, the negative particle may also be placed after the verb. 

I do not study at all. 
In case the subject is feminine plural, and the negative particle U% precedes the verb, then the 
feminine present participle is nasalized: 

_(T* J? u 

She does not study. 
I do not study. 

-cA J « 

They (feminine) do not study. 

-lA \J f 

75 



"We (feminine) do not study. 
The feminine plural present participle loses this nasalization when the negative particle iJJ 
follows it, e.g., -\J? tT> f 1 
Here is a list of common Urdu verbs that you should memorize: 

to eat L'Lp' 

to drink t£ 

to stay or to live tqJ 

to go 



to play 

to understand 



tf 



to come 

to do 

to work 

to write 

to sing 

to dance fefc 



iff* 



r v 






to give fe-» 

to bring CiJ 

to take W 

to see fc* -5 



76 



5.1-5.2 Conjugation Drill 

Conjugate the following verbs in the present habitual tense (assume that the subject is 
masculine): 

y 

< 

(singular) W 
(plural) M 
I 

Conjugate the following verbs in the present habitual tense (assume that the subject is feminine). 

— 

(singular) M 
(plural) o? 



77 



Conjugate the following verbs in the negative present habitual tense (assume that the subject is 
feminine). 



W cj/ 



*t 



? 

(singular) 09 
(plural) oi 

f 

5.1-5.2 Reading and Translation Drill 

_^ t-uT r r y 

-U? 21. w//m 
-^ Cf v c# u& fj* J* J" 

78 



-cJTe^ uk u* -*- *J* \M *£ 

_i^ 2-(f 0\> v s »\ hh 
-0* t/fi Ut?>Ut -1 

.^ Z_/^ fdxJLftf 
M*^ fctf t* ^ r V 



/ (A 



.^ t$t uw c"^ yj & 



Ji 



79 



M ~<£ ti/ wT A/ 

-ig Uf ** u[> f 

5.3 Times of the Day, Days of the Week, and Other Time Phrases 








Times of the Day 


morning (f) 




afternoon (f) 




evening (f) 




night (f) 




day, daytime (m) 






Days of the Week 


Sunday (m) 




Monday (m) 




Tuesday (m) 








w 



Wednesday (m) & X 

r 

Thursday (f) *sJ/* 

Friday (m) ^ 

S aturday (m) Z*q 

Other Expressions of Time 

today (m) £/ T 



tomorrow (m) 


j 


yesterday (m) 


j 


day after tomorrow (m) 


• 


day before yesterday (m) 


Uf~i 


every 


A 


every day (m) 


<i)i A '' J > J A 


every week (m) 


&A 


every month (m) 


fig A 


every year (m) 


O^A 


sometimes 


if f 


nowadays 


v b' 



5.4 The Particle /with Temporal Words and Phrases 

The particle S has many uses in Urdu. We will discuss these uses in great detail later. Suffice to 
say here that certain time expressions are marked by (or followed by) / . All times of the day, 
with the exception of (morning), are marked by 3 . Similarly all the days of the week are 
also marked by j . J after these expressions may be variously translated as "on," "in," or 

81 



"during." However, none of the other expressions of time introduced above (such as *\J<& 
JU- ) use /. 

I go to school in the day and work in the evening. 
He plays golf in the morning but studies at night, 

- tA u^ dh fj&t u\f2 

The girls do not go to school on Sunday. 

I am very busy these days. 

My family goes to Pakistan every year. 
Note: The short "a" vowel at the end of the words for Friday and Saturday, ^Z and &%, 
changes to "e" when marked by s . For explanation, refer to the discussion on the oblique case 
of nouns in Chapter 6, 

5.5 Review of Urdu Sentence Structure 
The normal word order in an Urdu sentence is: 

4 3 2 1 

Verb Locative Phrase Temporal Phrase Subject 

Any change in this order usually implies that the element placed out of normal sequence in the 
sentence is meant to be emphasized: 



82 



The temporal phrase JiJ f t , "every day," is emphasised in this sentence by being positioned at 
the beginning of the sentence before the subject. 

5.3 - 5.5 Substitution and Response Drill 
Substitute the phrases in brackets with the Urdu equivalents of the English words indicated 
below: 

on Monday 

on Saturday 

in the morning 

in the evening 

every night 

on Friday 

on Thursday 

every year 

hUU* 0> (& JL jr 

on Tuesday 
every week 

on Wednesday 
in the afternoon 



83 



on Thursday 

every month 

tomorrow 

today in the evening 

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the present habitual tense: 

(go) 7> fo A U^ J 

(work) C^< <J>^» <L >\a -J 

(studies) (j£ t^/y/H (j^ « J" 

(come) /(& Jfaf Bl/' ^ (J? J* 

(live) jS \JX> Jk «^X - d 

(dance) Jl/3 1 oj /f£ )sj jl Jl 

• (understand) jjyl r <\g -~£ 

(read and write) Jjl S)J \JL ~.{JS (jl -A 

(play) Jl* kf J 1 } f- -1 

(sing) U$l Ojj< Cj> Jl 

(come) jf f*tA/& \J0 - lr 

(give) u? &fr M jst fe/ jr 

\$SJ -(studies) fjt J mffil jft\ \$9J - (is) \$*J *Z^M ly£ 

£Jy jrf J* j JU iJ <£ tfcv .(is) *&$fi*1 \Jy &£ 

84 



SJji J* -(understand) $Jj\ fyj $$\ {J^ J -(are) 

h^U hj A J$ (live) \Jt &/£ \mSr 99 -(don'tread) 

(ji \J* Ujft f jQ\ji Kf -(do work) <£/*> * J&>* « -(go) 

fyfufffriy IT -(sing and dance) M 

-(eat) JU" J*\ (drink) 



Answer the following questions both orally and in writing: 

?<c- 1» Ul/ *s*"» If _*f _r 

V *-V /«**/* ~ r V -* 

5.6 The Verb U?lf with Nouns and Verbs 

In this section we will be discussing two uses of the verb t? U, to want, to desire. 
1. Cft with a noun: 

The noun becomes the object of Cflf , that is the object which is desired: 

verb inanimate object of verb subject 

85 



I want fruit. 

2. Cfl> with a verbal infinitive: 

The verbal infinitive in this construction becomes the object of Cf If : 

a* ty ^ <-* 

verb verbal infinitive subject 

I want to eat. 
Note that in such a construction only the verb Cf If is conjugated. The verbal infinitive remains 
unchanged. To form the negative, the particle iJ*T may be inserted before the verbal infinitive 
with the auxiliary of t>? being optionally retained or not for emphasis: 

(cjjf) tkjg tl/ U? jt 

verb verbal infinitive negative subject 

For additional emphasis, the negative may be placed between the verbal infinitive and verb: 

(la*) g$ uif 1*1/ jt 

verb negative verbal infinitive subject 

For even more emphasis, the negative can be moved to the end of the sentence: 

negative verb verbal infinitive subject 

5.6 Substitutions and Translations 
Replace the phrases within brackets in the following sentences with the Urdu equivalents of the 
English phrases listed below. 

-a* ty (r r ttf) i£ - 1 

21 fruits 



22 apples 

23 houses 
24 things 

(u 3gjfi U$M 4* ) Cp) 4/ -' 

want 25 pens they 

want 26 oranges you (formal) 

wants 27 hats she 
want 28 mangoes Raj and Nargis 

Ujt 2}J* C*fc Xr*) jr 

want to sing I 

want to play you (least formal) 

want to drink you (informal) 
wants to understand Rob 

-$, ty (fJf> (-C0(> -<" 

read newspaper 

give that thing 

drink water 

take 30 books 

wants to go New York Steve 

do not want to go cinema Steve and Amber 

want to stay at home peop le 

87 



want to live in Bollywood you (formal) 
Translate into Urdu: 

1 . We want to sing every evening. 

2. My friend and Rishi want to eat Indian food in an Indian restaurant. 

3. He wants to come to America; he does not want to live in India! 

4. She wants to understand Chinese not R ussaan. 

5. AH of them want to read the newspaper in the morning. 

6. I want to go to the movies but Sheila wants to stay in the house. 

7. Do you (formal) want to work in the White House? No, I don't want to work in 
the White House. I want to eat dinner and dance in the White House. 

5.7 Pronunciation Drill: Retroflexes 

Column 3 Column 2 Column 1 

vV H & i/ 

h 4 & us 

Hi, 4 i}/ \jf 

ttf r% iV I j* 



88 






Repeat the following sentences to practice rctroflcxive sounds: 

^ kfo tis* s% -i 
-<$- \k % \& J 

~^ifi£ \Si/\$ h J jr 

5.8 ^^ (Conversation) 

£<4 &s fart/V* •$- ±r>j r » jftjtf &*} ■■J? 

t\jtf j£ -<p >AJ *S- jftjtf^) Aft -«j_ tu <*}!*£ 



89 



?c£ z~fft ok, v T V y c£ %-* *f LUff* («=- &*>) '-jy* 
bfAa *Js ti/ji (tot -\jx \je (Te*^ ^ «j£j$ V-* 

_u* $Stf i/> ** u& -o« <y% j-v^. jl ■./} 

5.9 Conversation Practice 

Have a conversation with your partner about his/her activities in the morning, afternoon, 
evening, and night. You should have at least 6-8 questions for your partner and vice versa. All 
answers should be in complete sentences. Your conversations should incorporate as many of the 
following vocabulary words as possible: 

Be creative and feel free to bring in other vocabulary that we have encountered so far. 



5.10 Songs 



~2fjf.fr j?~ 








£- lJT ^ j/ 4 


(r 
















— 6a 4 






Glossary for Songs 




&f r j = rites, customs of love 


^ ' ■ tears (m) 




>\ = memory, rememberance (f) 


1/1^ = breath (f) 




£)Uj^ = storm (m) 


5.11 Vocabulary 




afternoon (f) 


>&->-> 




Arabic (f) 


J/ 

* 




to bring 


tu 




busy 


J»5r** 




to buy 







chess (f) 



£/ 



to come 






tT 






to be convinced, to listen, to 



ft 



obey 



91 



crazy, mad, insane L/5 

to dance *% » 

day(m) Ul 

day before yesterday; day after U**<£ 

tomorrow 

definitely, sure J)'/* 

J? 
1/ 

to drink t£ 



difficult 
to do 



to eat 



fare, rent (m) 
food(m) 
Friday (m) 
to give 



*» 



61/ 



evening (f) p? 

every A 

every day (m> -&U/J <diA 
every month (m) -4sJ? A 

every week (m) ^*7>7 

every year (m) ** A 

Ir 

eye(f) <M 

family (m) fc^f/lfr <>'i-£ 



-1/ 






fej 



82 



to go 




tu 


happy 




Jf 


hobby/hobbies (m) 




0? 


hundred 




r 


to know 




& 


less 




f 


to live or to stay 




uj 


a lot, very much 




"42 


love 


(m)^ 


/(f) &? /(m)yL- 


to love 


l/mf Jt/j^ 


mango (m) 




o 


memory, remembrance (0 




•• 


Monday (m) 
morning (f) 




4 



J* 



newspaper (m) j\J>\ 

now l— .1 

occasionally, now and then 
people, folk (m) 
place/vacancy (f) 
to play Ct» 

rupee (Indian/Pakistani ^3J 

currency) (m) 

93 



Saturd ay (m); week (m) Zfy 



to take 



that, which, who (relative 
pronoun and conjunction) 



to work 

94 



*6 



to see 

to sing 

to study/ to read fc*./ 

Sunday (m) JS\ 

sweets (f) (jt^ 



a 



temple (m) J J** 



X 



these days / nowadays 


Jfa 


Thursday <f) 


+IS* 


today (m) 


tf 


tomorrow/yesterday (m) 


J 


Tuesday (m) 


J> 


to understand 


U 


water (m) 


* 


Wednesday (m) 


a>j$ 



when (relative pronoun) w«3 

why? U% 

i * 
wine/alcohol (0 *7* / 



fe/HT 



to write t-**V 

yogurt drink (f) (j 




































95 



Chapter 6 
6.1 Postpositions 

Unlike English, Urdu does not have prepositions. Instead it has postpositions: that is, the 
prepositional counterpart in Urdu comes after the noun or pronoun it modifies. Some 
postpositions consist of only one word and are called simple postpositions while others consist 
of more than one word, hence they are called compound postpositions. 
Common simple postpositions include: 

at, in \JH 

on -£ 

from, by, with, since ^-- 

/ 

until, up to *-** 

Compound postpositions are usually formed with the particle C-~ or occasionally with £. 
Some important examples include: 

near 

concerning, regarding, about 

far from 

with 

before 

after 

96 



l/t 


£ 


jZ*-~A 


£ 


j» 


£— 


JfV 


£ 




e- 


M 


£ 



on top of y. 






i 

under L- *i- 

across, in front of tZAs t— 

behind ^5 £■ 

near, close to *— <;/^- /t-X-C i— 

beyond, in front of, ahead of *i— ' ^~ 

inside V-^' ^-~ 

because of tf^- $5 O 

Note: Pronouns that precede compound postpositions beginning with i- assume their 

possessive forms as discussed in Chapter 4. Thus, the pronoun \J~ before j6 \s ^- becomes 

£~j£ ', hence j£ U* 4— y£ • Similarly, the pronoun \J~ before ^-- ^9 becomes 

6.2 The Oblique Case - Oblique Forms of Nouns 

Whenever a noun or a pronoun is followed by a postposition, the noun/pronoun (and its 
modifying adjective) goes into the oblique case. Without the postposition, the noun/pronoun 
and adjectives modifying them are said to be in the nominative case. Some nouns/pronouns 
reflect the oblique case by slight changes in their forms while others remain unchanged. 
Exception: Some pronouns followed by a compound postposition use their possessive forms 
and not oblique forms. See section 6.6 below. 

Oblique Forms of Nouns 

Masculine Singular Nouns 

When a postposition is used after a marked masculine singular noun which ends in final "alif 

97 



', the "a/if is changed to "baRii ye" d^. If the noun ends in a "choTiihe," the "choTii he 
is either changed to "baRiiye" or retained and pronounced as "e." Forexample: 
Nominative: the boy vJ 

Oblique: on the boy J £—/ 

Nominative: child %~ 

Oblique: on the child / j. /ZL 

Unmarked masculine singular nouns (i.e., those that do not end with final "alif ) do not change 
their form in the oblique. Example: 
Nominative: office j*> 

Oblique: in the office (J~ ~p) 

Masculine Plural Nouns 
When masculine plural nouns go into the oblique, the suffix "oh" iji is attached to them. 
Marked masculine nouns which end with "baRii ye" ^_ in the nominative plural, drop this 
ending before taking the "oh" (J-? suffix. Examples: 

a) Marked 

Nominative: boys t— J 

Oblique: with the boys j£ 1/ Z- \Js s 

b) Unmarked 

Nominative: offices fJ 

Oblique: in the offices {J» Orf 3 

Feminine Singular Nouns 
When feminine singular nouns are followed by a postposition, their form remains unchanged 

98 






regardless of whether Ihey are marked or unmarked. Examples: 

a) Marked 

Nominative: girl \jj 

Oblique: from the girl CL- \js 

b) Unmarked 

Nominative: (able fi 

Oblique: on the table J }£ 

Feminine Plural Nouns 
AH feminine plural nouns take the "oh" (pending in their oblique forms. Note: The "oh" {J^ 
suffix is added to the singular form of feminine nouns. 

a) Marked 

Nominative: girls (Jf ' 

Oblique: from the girls *£- 0*LJ 

b) Unmarked 

Nominative: tables 4-£y^* 

Oblique: on the tables J (J>X 

Summary of Oblique Form Endings for Nouns 

Type of noun Singular Oblique Ending Plural Oblique Ending 

Marked masculine "e" <L- "oh" \J> 

Unmarked masculine same as nominative "oh" \J3 

Marked feminine same as nominative "oh" s 

Unmarked feminine same as nominative "on" {J} 

99 



6.2 Drill Exercise 



Give the nominative plural, singular oblique, and plural oblique forms of the following nouns: 

Jfjr $jfj\ 

1£l& J* Jl/jA 

63 Oblique Forms of Demonstratives 

When * (this) is followed by a postposition, its oblique singular form is \j\. When M (that) is 
followed by a postposition, its oblique singular form is (Ji. The oblique plural form of * is 
{Jl and that of M is C^- Examples: 



i}J -r 


V-* 


ffjb 


t •* 


jlrf -1 


v-r 


££ J& 


trt£ jr 


fc&j J1 


(J« JC 



Nominative 


Singular 


Oblique Singular 


this boy 




on this boy 


0„ 




i£*& 


that boy 




on that boy 


iff » 




<^tr» 


Nominative Plural 


Oblique Plural 


these girls 




with these girls 


L#* 




J\s £. 00 di 


those girls 




with those girls 


t^w 




Sir £ o£$ u'< 



100 



6.4 Oblique Forms of Adjectives 
Marked Adjectives 

a) Singular Masculine : These adjectives change the word final "alif" ' ending to "baRii ye" 
£-~ in the oblique. 

Nominative Oblique 

this good boy with this good boy 

that big house in that big house 

b ) Plural Masculine, Singular Feminine, Plural Feminine : 
These adjectives do not change their form in the oblique. 

Plural Masculine: ^U <£- \ji/ &£ with the good boys 

Singular Feminine: j&V' ^- {jJ (J? ' with the good girl 

Plural Feminine: j4\s- £~ Ox>' I? ' with the good girls 

Unmarked Adjectives 
These adjectives do not change their form in the oblique, regardless of number or gender. Study 
the following examples with the adjective j\^^ (intelligent). 

Masculine Singular Nominative K? J \^** 

Masculine Singular Oblique CL~ £—s j\ftf 

Masculine Plural Nominative Z-/ j\syt 

Masculine Plural Oblique GL~ \)j? Afft 

Feminine Singular Nominative \js J\P tf 

101 



Feminine Singular Oblique 



Feminine Plural Nominative 



Feminine Plural Oblique 






U30 J\>* 



6.5 Oblique Forms of Pronouns 

When certain pronouns are followed by postpositions, they assume a special form. Here is a list 
of the pronouns in their nominative and oblique forms. 

Singular 



Nominative 



J. 
? 



Oblique 



f 



99 



~> 



ifi 



Plural 



Nominative 






,r 



01 



Oblique 
f 



d 

Ul 



102 



6.6 Note on <<L- *% 

As we have learned previously, {j <£— *o are particles indicating possession. The gender and 
number of the object being possessed determines which form is used: o for masculine singular, 
Z- for masculine plural, and \j for feminine singular and plural. They function just as 
postpositions after nouns, as they put nouns into the oblique case. 

the boy's name ft o ^-S 

the boys' names |"*t 2-~ i^Jy s 

the girl's thing % (j (j./ 

the girls' things t[jZ (j 0-%^ 

Wh in preceding y *£-~ <v, certain pronouns, however, take the possessive form instead of the 
oblique: 



*x 


= 


t 


J. 


'/ 


= 


r 


1 


Wr" 


= 


r 


f 


tjg 


= 


r 


f 


\$X 


= 


cT 


ut 


6/: 


= 


cT 


3 


tfV 


=c 


if 


? 


\$M 


= 


* 


f 




6.4-6.6 


Reading and Translation Drill 








^&.7ifutJ. 



103 



-u? $7 if- jC\ ut f 

* S Hr&M, literally meaning "on the store," idiomatically implies "at the store." 
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the noun, pronoun, or adjective. 

(ihefruitseller) ~C~ ffl &>& 



(thefruitseller's) -£- l£f ftf_ 
(my) ^ \% ?J_ 

(my) ~u£ 6*($iJfaf$ oJ-% l£ /*>_ 

(that book) ?£- UltfC 

(that book's) ?^_ L/Vt _ 

(these books) -u{? C? '_ 

(these books) ?<£- If t/*L 

(good boys) -QH Oj' J\s £. 



_r 



-X 



x£ 






104 



(your [informal]) ?L# l/ft <C \jjf$ % 



tff 



(good thing) -^ ^ -'' 

(these good things) ?£_ 1/ stf £- -If 

(me) ?£■ $/ (j£ 4^ - ir 

(you [least formal]) -(J^ (jfA^ <{J$ - ,(V 

(that big house) -(^/t ^-_/* 9j\ (J- -'^ 

(our office) *jj$ i^fi/S J^ J1 

(at these stores) ?<i- £/// -*^ 

(me) J^ (X J*We~ « -C^ - ,A 

6.7 The Interrogative t^r and Its Oblique Forms 
in its nominative form means "who" or "which." 

?^ el/ 10 » 

Who is that boy? 

Who is this gentleman? 

Which gentleman is it? 
When \$f goes into the oblique, its singular form is {/' while its oblique plural form is fcp. 
In the oblique form, it may mean "whose," "whom," "which.," or "what." 

Whose book is this? 



?«£_ y^ If (/^ w 



105 



Whose house is that? 
Whose (plural) newspapers are these? 



* 




~ f* 



With whom (plural) do you sing? 

In which book is this thing? 

?£. c3j (/^^ 
At what time is the class? 
In the last example we see that the oblique case can exist even when a postposftion is not 
explicitly present. (The Urdu sentence does not have a postposition for "at" after the noun i££j}. 
Since the postposition is implied, this form is known as the implied oblique. In idiomatic Urdu, 
postpositions are often left out after temporal and locative nouns but their existence is 
nevertheless assumed. This assumption is evident in the fact that the noun and adj ective related 
to time and location of an action go into the oblique case without an explicit postposition. 

At what time does he go home? 
It is assumed that <JU} is followed by a postposition, V, but the rules of idiomatic Urdu do not 
recommend that the postposition be explicitly stated. But as the use of the oblique form of the 
interrogative adjective 0* illustrates, the noun &&3 that it modifies is in the oblique case. 
In many locative expressions, the same rule is applied. 

106 



He goes to the office. 
y J is in the oblique case with the postposition L/~or./ implied after it. 

-^ frU Ufa 
He goes to the post office. 
^0j has been changed into 2_ vf\ 'J because of the implied postposition which puts it in the 
oblique. 

Note that \J" can be followed by \j <£— *% (depending upon the object it is modifying) 
when inquiring about the possessor of a thing: 

Whose house is that? 
Whose fruits are those? 

Whose thing is that? 
6.8 Note on 2L cC 
The compound ^L *L can mean "for," "for the sake of," or "in order to." Nouns and adjectives 
preceding it will be in the oblique case: 

He comes for Ali. 

tf £. £ <# ji » 

He comes for this girl. 

t- r £ £ u±f'£} « 

107 



He comes for good bananas. 
In addition to nouns and adjectives, verbal infinitives can also occur before 2~ ZL-. In such 
instances, the infinitives will take the oblique case. For example, tt» will become i— W, , W 
will become tfL—* r , etc. 



Exception: Several pronouns followed by 

they assume the possessive form. 

for me r C jC 

for you ^L. £~j* 

for you *£— d^jty 

for us tL~ t—Ai 

See also section 6.6. 

The i_ construction also has two common idiomatic usages: 

therefore •<£— \J\, 

why ^L (/> 

Do not confuse the two aforementioned idiomatic expressions with: 

for this one C— L- \J\ 

for whom *d~ L* u' 



He comes [in orde 


] to eat. 










+ tf'<L£ 


9 










She comes [in order] 


to dance. 










owed by ^— c— do not go into the 


oblique 


case. 


Instead 




. 


<Lt 




+ 




J-- 


= 


±-£ 




+ 






= 


'Lt 




+ 




M 

( 


_ 


'LL 




+ 




fi 



108 



6.7 - 6.8 Reading and Translation Drill 

-O* 4/ ft t. £ ~T JL 
-U* Jlf Ujf» «— e» if <^ i/ 1 l£ 

t - x 

?tf_nb^ ^ ^ (/' '/ 

?*_ frf i£ c / « <l/ J r 
_^ jT i£ ^ c- &i 

~<z- & *>>. £&-% » -<* 
*4~tt&fM£ 0' 



109 



i+. x <->' C £1 L-ai \J\ 

?tl u*cr£ l 4^/1 4 
-*#£ £ iffji j*<r„ -jf 

**• ^ £ O'J 6* 
-e- Ml f* &/. e*X> £ _/ {/I 

-$. -/> t u/i £_u £ jm ji 

-gt t\ j% £" £ ?> *-M 
**-\/L' £ oh d' 

-at %f £f £ JA £1 

V £f £/^^J'\jW \X 



_z 



_A 



_9 



110 






Translate the following into Urdu: 

1 . Ashok comes here every day to eat. 

2. With whom does he come? 

3 . Whose houses are those? 

4. Sheila and Sunita go to the club to dance every night, but they don't drink alcohol 

5. Docs he bring food for them every day? 

6. 1 buy this car for you (your sake). 

7. I go to London every year to watch tennis. 

8. With whom do you sing? With crazy Raj? 

9. What time is their class every day? 

10. We come to Harvard [in order] to study but go to that office [in order] to work. 

1 1 . Because of love, there are tears in Nargis' eyes! 



111 



6.7-6.8 Substitutions 

Replace the phrases in brackets with the Urdu equivalents of the English words indicated below. 

you (least formal) 
him 
them 
me 

you (informal) 
us 

them 
that girl 



us 
those girls 
those boys 



*r 



you (formal) 
the Pakistani president 
that boy 



112 



me 

you (informal) 

them 

his friend 

that 

our house 

their thing 

their things 

that 

window 

this 

those houses 

^ftt i/f £-if £( k0 (^ - A 

you (formal) 

those boys 
this building 

my brother 

our 
113 



their 

my 

his friend 

us 

house 

that building 

this market 

these houses 

those houses 

that big building 

this beautiful market 

_l£ t-/(jj} hJti £ {/*-& W'O Jr 

twenty-five this big building 

seven my house 

twelve our friend's house 

twenty-eight her office 

.*. JA stc cs- 41 i/t £X&J? WO Jr 

these buildings 
our office 
that big store 

114 









this poet's house 
Pakistanis 

our friends 
that car 
Aishwarya Rai and Salman Khan 

whose house 

whose things 

whose store 

whose newspapers 

6.9 Pronunciation Drill: Aspirated, Perso-Arabic, and Reiroflexive Sounds H 
Column 2 Column 1 

#/ ( 

115 



c£fs 




V 




\j*)h 




ftf 




&X*/ 




* 




y 




tfV 




c/Ui 




tfju 




<&M 




JyY 




\$A 




tfV 




f 




iJLf 




> 




J* 




iA 




J* 




ijd 




J* 




6.1 


1 J*"^ (Conversation) 








wv 


r.j.^_^ 


:&j 




**. Ju ;/-(/? 


<LM (^ ?&lv 


y 


?.* HftfaH* ift hj ft ( <\ki 


_^_ *X? w^ 

1 •* * 


:&j 




f j* , 


^ u/< ( 


y 


-U* ft U tlf 


£ LUfJ\, 


i-jl/ b" J"- 


fyb 


-U-tf (jlf J?\s £ J" ^ c/' J!w >7 t 


Z-di <d$ 


■*/> 




** Jlf U*f.*V £ J^ f 7 


;&j 


u&ifclkfM£if\jA u* &% J\s £ 


■ \f\ <jt J£ 


■Sj 






+**f 





116 



Andy: Hello, Jane. How are you? 

Jane: Fine, thanks. What is this? 

Andy: These are apples, bananas, and mangoes. These are for you. 

Jane: Thanks so much. Is there a fruit seller's store near your house? 

Andy: No. It's in front of my office, behind that big building. 

117 



?£_ GL. \jf »> ^f- ***** uii tAj? J? y %ju 

i\f£. C <Ly jt ^i _u>? *_•«/ t£ jt\ <l. W J? -U[ <U\ ■b 1 -' 

-+. ^ $J &fyt ( <tx j\A ( <\f :J} 

'■U j* l£ <( -u# ft d** ut -$- j$ o\ i V w 

6.11 Conversation Practice 



Jane: Do you go to get fruit every day? 

Andy: No, I go every week. Why? 

Jane: I want to go with you. There is a problem [fault: y'-^] in my car. With whom do you 

go? 
Andy: I go with my friend Ashok. He lives above my apartment. 
Jane: Do you want to go with me now? 
Andy: Yes, I want to buy oranges as well. 

6.12 Songs 

00 «£_ {<£ efpi JVj . 
$. tit (r) & cT Ofi'u 












J 



118 



(*^U fi^~y^ 'C^l^ C^l"' 

[ Gu^)— / J, ix 

Glossary for Songs 

\f Jy = attachment, friendship, love (f) &bt = ignorant, foolish 

llf \}y, - lover; one with burned heart (m) C/£ ijt I = to sigh 

6Us< = to amuse, to cheer, to distract 

6.13 Vocabulary 

after <& ^ 

angry; upset L/'-/t 
any; some (adj); someone (noun) * 

to ask H-l 

I bad *V 

because — ** -*- 



bed(m) 

119 



because of <—• -^* 



before ii ^ / jH 

behind <^ T Zl 

beloved, sweetheart (m) j-jf* i-- 

building (f) *i^L-£ 

chair (f) <jV 

clock/watch (f) (J^c* 

to explain, to cause to fcUf 
understand 

fault, blemish, (f) (jf/ 

■ 

for the sake of, for, in order to fj / - 

friendship (f) (jf)) 

fruit seller (m/f) \}h Jv I \)b ij* 

• 

garden (m) £/l 



heat, hot weather (f) 

in front of, across, facing 

inside 






king (m) ^»'> 

life, soul; sweetheart; energy (f) (^1^ 

Mahabharata —Indian epic C^-zl^lf' 
market/bazaar (m) J>j\* 

to meet t^ 



120 



near 


/v^7 £/J£j$ <£ 




j±t 


news (f) 


j 


now 


* 


on top of 




post office (m) 


j&Jk 


reason (f) 


-9* 


regarding 


jt ^azL 


to say, to speak 


tf 


to sleep 


W 


test, trial, examination (m) 


U&l 


therefore 


ZiTl 


time (m) 


J$9 


under 




who 


U/ 


window (f) 


i/ 


with (in the company of) 


J\s c 


for what reason, why 


(uJ>4- i/ 



121 



Chapter 7 
7.1 Expressing Potentials with fc*' 
The verb t^" (to be able to, or can) is never used by itself. It always needs the stem of another 
verb before it: 

to be able to study £*"* >2»-/ 

to be able to eat t**' U* 

Note that when conjugating this construction, only the verb P** changes. The stem of the verb 
which is attached to fc^ does not change under any circumstances. 

I can go to Harvard. 

They can read a book. 

?* ■£. & ( <\/ 

Can you dance? 
Verbs which combine t^ with the stem of another verb are called compound verbs. 

7.2 \J$ with Compound Verbs 
In order to form a negative sentence with compound verbs, there are three options: 
1 . The particle ij*f precedes the compound verb block; 



122 



2. The particle {J% is placed between the verb stem and fc*" : 

3. The particle {J% is placed at the end: 

The gradual shift of the negative particle to the end of the sentence corresponds to an increasing 
emphasis in negation. Hence example 3 is the most emphatic. 

7.3 Further Uses of J3* 
In addition to being a conjunction meaning "and," jjt can also mean "more" and "further." 

Would you like to eat more? 

?l£ if $ ** >f T 

Can you sing more? 
7.1-7.3 Reading and Translation Drill 

j£ J} J 'J Qx & »\ id ut J 

-Ut £ 0% t)J Jjf *** »> 

-U?b u? \»% f ui if d nJ m 

123 









?/f \f ty j>I f <\f 

1A The Present Continuous Tense 

The present continuous tense is formed in Urdu by combining the following components: 
the verb stem + the appropriate form of the participle of the verb %%J ; \j (for masculine 
singular subject), ^~ / (for masculine plural subject), \$J (for feminine singular/plural subject) 
4- present tense form of fc-tf agreeing with the subject. 

Feminine Singular Masculine 

-0* if'-' ati U~ * a™ studying. -0* \ J &% U~ 

-<£-, $J #> ? You are studying. -«£- \j *>> V 

~3i \$J &5f / You are studying. ~f? &~J &% f 

~L% iS 1 ** **& *y' You are studying. -t£ <£— ' £>-/ ^ ' 

-<f- tfO ^> »J He/She is studying. -<£- ^-/ *> M 

jPfirraf 

-(^ $/ £>> /« We are studying. -t£ f— ' -*£ (** 

-J* (/<-/ ^ / You are studying. -J* <p~< ^a»-/ p 

-L# if** &% ^' You are studying. -u/? *j~J a>% *-^ 

-C# li*-' *>% U They are studying. -C# ^-^ *% •» 
To form a negative sentence with this tense, place (>V before the beginning of the verb block 
and drop the t^ auxiliary unless you want to be emphatic. -if'J 0^ \J$ 69 (She is not 
studying). 

124 



7.4 Reading and Translation Drill 

-0* iS'J dr t'Asji J". *<jf 

-Urn rfs J \JX 'Jt Jd U* '& »% d$ & & * U* -*" 

-U* iS'j 4> 6> -6 -»< 0* &■> tfut 

7.5 The Comparative 
In Urdu, all comparative and superlative expressions of adjectives are in relative terms. Thus, 
the comparative is expressed by saying, "x is bigger than y," wh ile the superlative follows the 
form "x is the biggest of all." The postposition n £Z~ n is used in Urdu in the same sense as "than" 
and "of are used in English. The comparative subject appears in the beginning of the sentence 

125 



or phrase and that which the subject is being compared to follows it with the adjective agreeing 

with the comparative subject. 



-«=_ ik ^ ^V 


& 


adjective agrees with subject object of comparison 


subject 


Ali is bigger (older) than Mohan. 




-^ & ^& 


g 


adjective agrees with subject object of comparison 


subject 



Sheila is bigger (older) than Ali. 
Remember that ^— is a postposition, so the nouns, pronouns, and adjectives governed by £L- 
will be in the oblique case. 

Those boys are bigger (older) than Ali. 

-^ (a a. utt ui & 

Ali is bigger (older) than these boys. 
7.5 Substitutions 

those apples 
those oranges 
that fruit 
these bananas 

that boy 






126 









that beautiful girl 
Harvard's students 
Albert Einstein 

those windows 






those carpets 
those pens 

that book 



7,5 Translation 



Translate the following comparative statements: 



1. Radha is more beautiful than Sunita. 



2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 

I 6 



Steve is brighter than Ali. 

This girl is better than that boy ((,/')• 

He is older than me {!%). 

My shoes are more beautiful than the shoes of those girls. 









Canada is cleaner than the U.S. because there are fewer people and less trash. 



7. This picture is better than those pictures. 

$. Is your (most formal) room bigger than my room? 



9. These apples are more expensive than those apples. 



10. Those carpets are cheaper than these carpets. 















7.6 The Superlative 



In order to form a superlative statement, the pronomial adjective (i->^) is used before C-~ and 



127 



the rest of the sentence structure remains the same as it would in a comparative sentence. 

-^ A?* a. ^ tf \j£ 
My son is the brightest (of all). 

My girls are the brightest (of all). 

-^- l£ G- ^ 09 

He is the oldest (of all). 

7.6 Translation 

Translate the following superlative statements. 

1. This is the most delicious thing. 

2. This is the most expensive carpet. 

3. That is the cleanest room. 

4 . That is my oldest boy. 

5 . Is he your best friend? 

6. Ghalib (>-J t) is the world's best poet. 

7 . My sister is the most beautiful girl. 

8. Those are the most difficult books. 

9. This picture is good but those pictures are the most beautiful. 

1 0. Our house is the largest 

7.7 Persian Adjectival Elements 
It is quite common for Urdu to use the Persian comparative and superlative adjectives. These 
adjectives are formed by the addition of the ? suffix (for comparative adjectives) and £fS suffix 

128 



(for superlative adjectives). The use of J* and £/ S suffixes in Urdu is limited, for they can only 

be attached to adjectives of Persian origin. 

good r 

better jrf 

This girl is better than that girl. 



worse •/-* 

worst ti//> 

He is the worst servant. 
The Persian adjective oJ^J>i 
o^J>d is a commonly used Persian adjective meaning "favorite." 

Tom Cruise is Sheila's favorite actor. 
7.7 Reading and Translation Drill 

-*. * ^ 4 jU* 

-Ui /%* *~ U& dl £$ « 

129 



_^_ sj, e^ Js. j\ Ji. » _r 

?^ 4> wtf ^ ir r f <i/ 
.^a/jus ^4> « /»i ^ c^' i-i> &sf*vH <x ~&f-i4 

7.8 Expressing More or Less 

In order to express "x is more than y" in Urdu, the expression tA) £-~ is used. Example : 

t - w s 

This is more than that 

In this class there are more boys than in that class. 

A similar construction is used to express "x is less than y," but instead of 6)1 J, f is used. 

-c- fe. iff * 

This is less than that. 



130 



-t£ £9 f *- u*tfift J"~ W it W i 

Both 9>LJ and [ can be combined with the comparative J suffix as seen in the following 
examples: 

Students in this university are mostly American. 

The price of this book is even less than that. 
Note: JjUandf rarely use the i^f/ suffix to express the superlative, 

7.8 Translation 

I -tf %-j J) f^ J A iiif-^i -vft JJ^ : <£* 

i ?c/f 4.7 JV f {/' c-5&f U\> \f W $ 

^Jt 2^j J) M c-!&*f\£ ^ '4 -J 'J 9 -\f ^ 

_^ M AX 4< j/tdC £- Q*/» -&t 

-£- tliJ c^f- JJ * '■& 

I - - 

-^ (e- Ja_ A / «l4 :^ 

7.8 Reading and Translation Drill 

1^. fc- '&jf£ x#» jt jfttf)> [SAP >yf 



131 



1$ $-J Jt d& J) ,45 fr^^^v' - r 

-l£ <jui u/y «U e- -£/' i£ d^i-* 
M 2^j Jj {** 4>i u4 '>/ 



7.9 Cardinal Numbers 31-40 



u 

l/-* rr 

***** 

</** rr 

t^ n 

t/*V» t (/fa r*. 

7.10 Aggregatives 

In order to indicate total plurality in Urdu, the suffix [Ji is added to the numbers between two 
and ten, with the exception of six and nine: 



both (special form) 


OJ» 


all three 


u£ 


all four 


\j$j^ 


all five 


uA 



132 



all six j& £—£ 

all seven \Jw 

all eight \JST% 

all nine V *L y 

all ten (J^-> 

The numbers six, nine, and numbers larger than ten are expressed in such a construction by 
being repeated and separated from each other by the postposition (3 \l-~ , depending upon the 
gender of the noun that follows- the numerical adjective. 

£~s oj\s iL- bj\s otlAJs s;U (j oj[S , meaning all eleven girls or boys 
In order to express indefinite plurality, the suffix {J J or \,J) is added to the number. Common 
indefinite plurality adjectives are: 

scores of U£~* 

hundreds of 0^ £ \J*X 

thousands of lM>r£ 

hundreds of thousands of 0^ v 

tens of millions of \J)J)J 

-Jl £. u \jhi j£V t-to 

Both can live with us. 
All three of those girls are beautiful. 

-Ul l£t Uifj> S tSi 0\> 
All nine girls dance over there. 



133 



-t# 2^> C$ 0>fi jt JCj/ 
Hundreds of boys study at Cornell. 

All hundred boys study at Cornell. 
Note the difference between the last two sentences. The first sentence expresses indefinite 
plurality and the second one expresses total plurality. 

7.10 Reading and Translation Drill 

?* c~j ffdfc £^ Ju iA- oh* ( if 

~<ji &% <£j> u$ <£ >j\£\ ) u\9 -u\ 

7.11 The Future Tense 

The simple present tense is frequently used to express the immediate future; 

134 



I go there or I'll go there (immediate' future). 
The regular future tense is formed by the addition of two suffixes to the verb stem: 
1st suffix: O* (1st person singular), 6— (2nd, 3rd person singular), t/Ost, 2nd, 3rd person 
plural), i (2nd person r ). 

2nd suffix : (J (feminine singular or plural), c— (masculine plural), (masculine singular). 
The suffixes used depend on the number and gender of the subject. 
The following example will make this more clear: 

verb; fc*> 

V 

stem: o>S 
Feminine Masculine Pronoun Subject 

Singular 

£*% £*> ? 

fa &n ^ 



>; 



Plural 



&%fa &X f 

Sn ^n '( 



fa £*% «/* 



135 



There are three verbs that have irregular conjugations in the future tense on account of 
modifications in their verbal stems: to take, to give, and to be. 



U- 



to take 



Feminine 


Masculine 
Singular 


Pronoun Subject 


Si 


ft 


ut 


& 




1 


Si 


£J 


r* 


fi 


a 




£ 


Plural 


fttfg* 


Bfi 




f 


Si 


£y 




fi 









fe J - to give 


Ml* 


Feminine 


Masculine 
Singular 


Pronoun Subject 


/. 


ti„ 


\£ 


i 


& 


y 


s» 


C» 


? 



136 



A 


L> 


•* 


£> 


•i 


•• 




Plural 




£-j/LTj 




r* 


s„ 


L>, 




A 


4; 


1 


J-, 


L, 






t-tf- to be 




Feminine 


Masculine 


Pronoun Subject 




Singular 




/- 


tin 


u"~ 


s« 


U 


7 


S* 


L« 


•* 


/- 


L« 


V 


<& 


U 


lEtfg* 




Plural 




UtfUtfjf 


L« 


(* 


if* 


L* 


? 


j/jf 


L* 


1 


if- 


L* 


8Jf** 



Note: The future tense of tjt can also be used to indicate the suppositional, particularly when it 
is used as an auxiliary verb. For example, wSt \Jw M means "He will be there" (future) or "He 

137 



must be there" (suppositional). (j>? (JU £•> cX \j<t&£ 6$ » "That girl must be 
studying at the university." Im j»V If \JO^sM JM -^y* f "The American President musi 
be going to India." We will discuss the future suppositional in greater detail in chapter 1 5. 

7.11 Reading and Translation Drill 

?£/^ ^~? 

J j$* JZ jffi ~£> d"- 

^(vegetable) t£j* M w? </ 

nti u'uer MS 

-^ l^ WU «£, t/J M -« 



138 









*s \J$ >AJ c J[ \f' jt cjf 

-Jr. J. &l /jV\ 00 m 

* • - 1 



Translate the following sentences into Urdu: 

1. We will go to the cinema tomorrow. 

2. What will you (informal) do tonight? 

3. Will we be able to eat at your house? 

4. Ali will cook tomorrow and we will eat with him. 

5. Will Madonna sing on Saturday? 

6. Tonight I will read a book and write a letter. 

7. Will they buy a newspaper today? 

8. He will give a lot of money for this horse. 

9- He will not be able to give his house for the party. 

10. Where will those beautiful girls be tomorrow night? 

11. Sir, your son must be playing tennis right now. 

139 



-^ 



12. Everyone in that house must be sleeping. 

7.12 Pronunciation Drill: Diphthongs 



If* 


J* 


J. 


J- 


£. 


A 
£- 


cX 


eX 


^ 


Jf 


H 


H 


by 


by 


bf 


bf 


tij 


tij 


jii 


M 


j?. 


j?. 


J 


jf 


s,f 


*>S 


*J 


• 


7.13 Response Drill 





Answer the following questions. 

?ut z£ jT >sA J\ ,\S j 

w - ( - t? w 

?c# 2^ &t (£f ^ wT ^3j <L <Jt <j/ J" 



140 



_1 

_A 
J* 



?^. &if*,jfjet »y c- *** u£ i?j l/! '«/ dip- £ >5 

s 4- \fm/ fit tjhi rf ^ 
M ^- r -0*' tf-' 1 -' -*' ,J '-' ^ y^ V -n 



V^ ^j t f- i/ &t" ^l* ej? «*tf^/ i/k 5 



,«*■ 

_ir 

J* 

_IA 



_r* 



*Lif\ffrf 6/T ; _n 






141 



7. 14 ^^(Conversation) 

U ^J f\ff -£- J& ^ '.if} 

-t- i/s f !f_ (j*f «# 7 -J$jti </ Jt -J.£ 2^ :bh 

gA» <^< ijii fa f\$ *~ i* if wj £&&* Jb *-x '■&& 



142 



Ufa tf ^ -t£ dw «£■ 6^ U^w s- -Ms (i^ -«' if-' a 'us 

l/ JV wT Ul :i/0 



*•!* " JS& 



\LJ\f- ^*> $0*J f' ^ u^ : <S* 

-<f- c^ (W if &*/ * -f- ^ * •*&•*•> if 
l\Jat tf Ju aA* «/ -U-* t^ lW l£ -if* **k 



143 



-t-dtiw^^-? 6k- \$jt !t4 -6k 

-at ± 6 ft J; &i, 

7.15 Conversation Practice 

Telephone conversation 
Reshma: Hello. This is Reshma. Who is speaking? 

Mummy darling: Reshma! It's me, your mother! I am speaking from the hospital. 
Reshma: Greetings! Mummy darling! What are you doing at the hospital? 
Mummy darling: You know that Sunil is in the hospital. He will be here for three days more. 
Reshma: When are you coming home? 

v if 
Reshma: Can you buy me something from the market? 

Mummy darling: What do you want? 



Mummy darling: 1 am going to the market first {^L. ) and then I will come home 



144 



Reshma: Oh! Mummy darling! You are the best mother? Can you buy me some sweets and 

chocolates? 
Mummy darling: Reshma! I will not buy you chocolates and sweets! You know that too many 

sweets are bad for you. 
Reshma: In my opinion, they are very good for me. They give me life! 
Mummy darling: Absolutely not! I will not buy you trash! I will buy some fruit for you. Fruit is 

better than sweets. Do you want some mangoes? Mangoes are your favorite fruit. 
Reshma: Yes, I want some very sweet mangoes and some sweets also. 

Mummy darling: Oh my dear v{jj[%) Reshma! My crazy daughter! What shall I do with you? 
Reshma: Mummy darling. Will you buy me some sweets? 
Mummy darling: OK but you will eat them after dinner. 
Reshma: Thank you, Mummy darling. You are the best mother in the world. 1 love you very 

much! Bye. 
Mummy darling: Bye, my crazy daughter! 

7.16 Songs 

jl ± f ? <u? 

/ c*\j if tf *\Jt <u\ 
j£ t\f fT J/ jl£ jt 9 tjif 



145 

















f. ^ i/i r^ (r 










A&*1 %f 










<r & 0*5 f> 










<£. tij tf- &v' 
















Glossary for 


Songs 




Ufi- 


: there (emphatic form of \J\* ) 


t-Uj 


= to decline, sink, fade (as sunset, life, etc.) 


0£> 


- where (relative pronoun) 












7. 17 Vocabulary 






ath 1 ete/player (m/f) 






\5&f 




to bathe 




tif 


> < t/tP 




to be able to, can 






^ 




best 






«£# 




better 






/* 




both 






u/A* 



146 



box (m) |J 

to change fcJ^i 

to cry tjj 

clothes (m) 

to come along, to go along, to 
set out, to walk, to embark 
to cook t&i 

door (m) l)hj> 



father (m) 


* * 7 * > * • 


father-in-law 


/- 


favorite 


»4-^ 


flower (rn) 


JA 


forgive/excuse me 


)fizf^i\f 


forty 


c*V 


grandfather (maternal) 


tt 


grandfather (paternal) 


u> 


grandmother (maternal) 


lit 


grandmother (paternal) 


t£>t> 


grown up, elder person (m/t) 


J*/l* 


holiday, vacation (f) 


d* 


human being, man, person (m) 


eUSlttfjX 


hundreds of 


U9f*/v*j£ 



147 



hundreds of thousands of 

husband (m) 

less 

letter (m) 

to listen 

to be made, built, created; 

to become 
to make, to build, to create 
millions of 
money, cash, wealth; coin (m) 

mother 

mother-in-law 
more 

narcissus (f) 

to open 

or 

to pick up 

poor person (m); poor (adj.) 

to reach 

ready 

rich 

scores of 



CI* 
Ushf 

iA- 



ttff 



*- 



148 



service (f) 
sister (f) 
a respectful title for sister or 
anybody older to whom one 
wants to show reverence 
shut up; be quiet 
something; some 
sorrow (m) 
studies, education (f) 
swift, quick; hot (spicy), fiery, 

sharp 
that is to say, i.e. 
thirty 

thought, idea, opinion (m) 
thousands of 
trash (m) 
wife(f) 
worse 
worst 



cj£ <lT <{$X q$4£ 



ytj >-4 






Ju 



4 



•A 



*A 



c£^> 



149 



Chapters 
8.1 Formal Imperatives (with w ' ) 

The honorific imperative is used for people who are referred to with the b— * ' pronoun. It is 
formed by taking the stem of the verb and adding £- (ie) to it (In Urdu, the ; vowel can be 
written cither as long or short. Thus one may write the imperative of C- 2 *^ as £jp or if- .) 

Infinitive: CU* Stem: \J> Imperative: ^— L» 

\h J? ok 

In stems that end in 0, a £< is inserted between the stem and C— (ie), e.g., ti becomes 2S 
Irregular verbs are: 

Infinitive: W Imperative: £$z 

y '4~> 

In many situations the use of this imperative conveys the sense of English "please." 

Please study. - £jf \ 

Please eat. -£~U* 
Translate these sentences using- the honorific imperative: 

1 . Please eat two apples. 

2. Please read this book. 

3. Please come with me. 



150 



4. Please bring a box with you. 

5. Please look. 

6. Please lake more food. 

7. Please work better than this! 

8. Please give a chicken. 

9. Please drink some tea. 

1 0. Please go home! 

A more formal imperative than the aformentioned one is formed by the addition of oto the 
formal imperative. This imperative is only used in situations in which great deference is 
implied. 






8.2 Informal Imperatives (with r) 
The imperative used to command those who are referred to in the r form is formed by the 
addition of J to the stem: 

• • 

There are two irregular r imperatives: 

Change the following formal imperatives into informal ones: 

151 



tt£ j 

if _r 

t4f£> -r 

•t 

8 J Least Formal Imperatives (with i* ) 

The stem of the verb acts as the imperative to be used with the ? form. 

t/ I do 
k^J £-) give 
t4 <L take 
fcU U eat 
fcj (1 drink 
8.4 Negative Imperatives 
In order to form a negative imperative, insert ^>^ or £ right before the imperative word: 

Don't do this (formal)! !■££ *V ^ 

Don't read (formal) ! !^> C^ 

Don't go (informal)! -5U ^ 

Don't come (least formal)! -' ' *ZS 

8.S The Infinitive as Imperative 
The infinitive of a verb can also serve as an imperative. It connotes a neutral or impersonal form 
of the imperative in contexts when degrees of formality are not regarded as necessary. 

152 






■n 



Give two sen of meal. 

Don't drink this water. 

Dont sit here. 

8.6 Use of 0\/f and hi with Imperatives 

When we encountered 0\j? in Chapter 1, its implication was one of "thanks." However, when 
\i\jf is used with the postposition ^Z-, it acts as the adverb "kindly." 

Kindly do this work/Please do this work. 
The expression <L — r l$%/f or Ji/ (jly/may also be used instead of c^{ji/f as an 
alternative expression for "please, kindly. 11 

Whereas 0\*jf is usually used with formal imperatives, hi can act as its counterpart in 
informal imperative constructions with the connotation of "just" or "please just.'* Idiomatically 
its use corresponds to the English expression "would you mind?" The literal meaning of hj is 
"slightly" or "a little bit." 

-9) wOm hi 
Please just give that book (informal). 
8.6 Reading and Translation Drill 

~ti* ok. e- oV 



J ok ijj 

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the imperative of the verb indicated in the 

parentheses. 

(read) . 0$?-. # <~<' £- tifof J 

(don't go, formal) . Oty <=- 6\jf - r 

(read, least formal) . m *JJ - r 

(cook, informal) . L% M 2L d-jifl t/J -<* 



(give, informal) ._ 



(don't drink, informal) ._ 



(don't eat, least formal) . &/* •*** 



(write, informal) ._ 



(give, formal) . *-<r l/& -** 

(take, formal) . <£ U*$k -'* 



Summary of Imperative Forms 

Impersonal & Least Formal, 1 Informal, f Formal, ^ 



Infinitive 



Less Urgent 

of \S 



154 









if 


Of 


& 


i 


a 


L. 


& 


<—) 



if d/ tf 



4* 


% 


4 


cJ 


£> 


y 



Note: Gender is not marked in imperative forms. 

8.7 Further Uses of fcff 

We have already encountered ijt as the "to be" verb and its use in the habitual present tense as 
an auxiliary verb. Ctf is also used in the sense of "to become, to take place and to happen. " 

What can happen here/What can be done here? 

What takes place here? 
it — ~ 

What is going on? 
When vtf is used with its participle forms, tL-y? '{jyt <vyi , it indicates generalities or 
statements of fact. 

Nowadays there is (generally) a lot of heat. 

There is (generally) a lot of filth in New York. 

Are there (generally) good students at Harvard? 

155 



Is the food in India (generally) good? 
8.7 Reading and Translation Drill 

-i£ 2-X e£^ |*f 5, 

aM 2-* cist iAik/' 

-£- tit \& ti/ _r 
-<-. ^ # (>t^ tl/' 

•frji j^ tfc* tuT 
?4^ C^ jf (f *->i; tfju - <i/ -o 

j£ St jf ffj* M -jt (S 



156 



-eg 2Li« ;'>/■ is^s J> t ,1 

M 

_*£_ (J.* vU^ «U <c_ l.^ Jo 

-id As. j>\-Z-\/*s 

J H ;)< Jk} os 
-<z- «U £,?. £ !(/^ -1 

-*£_ t*j< 1^ <=^ (Jl £>w 
_(^ 2_j* ^ vij cl, 3L x?> 

?<sL- IT^ fc-" <z- m») {fh tf 



157 



Of 

8.8 The Past Participles of t^ - U 

The verb fci? has two past participles, each of which is associated with a special meaning and 
function. We will discuss the w participle here and the I ft participle in Chapter 12, The past 
participle w and its various forms, £- (masculine plural), \j (feminine singular), and {jT 
(feminine plural), are used for "was, were." It is declined as follows: 



Feminine 


Translation 


Masculine 


Pronoun 


/ 


I was 


# 


lA 


/ 


You were 


g 


1 


/ 


She/he was 


g 


Ml* 
m 


j 


We were 




f 


J 


You were 


•* 

4L. 


T 


j 


They were 


•* 


•• 


0? 


You were 


£. 


? 



Examples: 



?£ rfff&tj J 



9) 



Where were they last night? 
Ten years ago I was a student. 

-/ 4 X % " 

That thing was on the table. 

Yesterday morning at eight o'clock the girls were in school 

156 



l^anid its variants are also used as auxiliary verbs in various past tense constructions. They 
function exactly like ^- in the present tense. Examples: 

He used to work. 

J? \j ffta 

He was working. 
J f/fln 

She was able to work. 
8.8 Reading and Translation Drill 

f/ iV# « 4£ ^ <J j 

-O U^V wp tf>" tf - r 

-if ;e &r c^iA- **> t/ 
-J! 2 *&&$&£$ 

159 



_r 



Translate the following sentences into Urdu: 

1 . Were you a doctor 20 years ago? 

2 . He was a very bright student many years ago. 

3 . Rita Hayworth was our favorite actress. 

4. Were you at Sheila's house with your friends last week? 

5 . Last week Raj was working in the restaurant. Now he is not there. 

8.9 The Past Habitual Tense 
The past habitual tense is formed in a manner similar to the present habitual tense except that the 
present form of the auxiliary verb £>? is replaced by its corresponding past form. 
Present habitual: 
~\Jyt V*!? {jZ I study. 

-<£_ bJftfOfy « He works there- 
Past habitual: 

Jtf t>^ fj£ I used to study. 

Jtf tV fv{j\* w He used to work there. 
This tense is used to denote regular or habitual actions in the past. The conjugation pattern is as 

follows: 

Feminine Masculine Pronoun 

160 






8.9 Reading and Translation Drill 

JL Ut J\s i-M <» 
JL 2^1- \k f \A iM jC\ 
JL "&? J$ t> <s- & cf <M- - r 

J? Of ' J$ /\ u &. *?> 6 J A 

i£ Zjfu&ttfe- 4* iff"? <\f 



161 



8.10 The Past Continuous Tense 

The past continuous tense is used to describe actions that were in progress at a particular time in 
the past. Again, this tense is formed in the same way as the present continuous tense, except that 
the present form of $Jt is replaced by its past counterpart. 



Present continuous: 






~ J>f Vj &% JZ 


I am studying. 




^\jff$n 


He is working. 




Past continuous: 






J? \j &/ \JL 


I was studying. 




J>\tJ{€u 


He was working. 


The conjugation pattern 


is as follows: 




Feminine 




Masculine 


if [$J #% 




\J »% 


if \5 i j &% 




0y*% 


f \$j at/ 




\i ^ ^> 


jf (fid *!/ 




**"* 


U? \$J * b s 




&f"% 








M 
L^ \#J IP'S 




&$~s*% 



Pronoun 



Jt. 



>fb3 






,r 






162 



8.10 Reading and Translation Drill 

?£ \j l* Jj CL- <P Jif. Jljf »s3j i/i '/ 

_£ \j %uX'<L£ uff £ dh dJ Mi 4< -f 

-^- f-> J-/ |L tf- -?J (X l/U - r 

-if l?-** ^ » <=- -f * y (/> 

-I? ^ If j/f ^vr4fc n £*l£# 

-if $j J? Uf X J 



8.11 Cardinal Numbers 41-50 






163 



8-12 Pronunciation DriU: Doubling of Consonants 



* • 

C-j Vj 

JO lK 

164 



iA^ 


rr 


<J%> 


ra 


tZ-yr 


n 


J-Oc 


r± 


jit* 


fA 


\f$ 


1*9 


uTk 


a* 



f &> 

8.13 ^^(Conversation) 

-& ok f <i& i/? -J 

-S ok r r # r -<y S : </; 

!J| ^X "f- in Ultf ^ y7 » -<J^ 'C^ : J4 

-4J ok ? <r- l&" If c/l/v !\&j --if 

-Ofi&^&t-u-i£o'jz>o r Jo'~ -u? -&J 

-j% J) f -^ \j yi iM t\f-o\ >o[ : J-G 

-6% I? I/O -ji :bh 

lJ$/& '\f-c- t/<; ^ <U[ -*- 0? d"~Jtf !(? :tfv 

- 

~i)x hfjs js\ JU ii cl. 1-1/ 

jtfa/ju J\s £ i»j b'lf-ut Jut* iw <i? W so 



165 



If (Us js\ ~<z- M *V m -<$- b/, iAj ^c jt M .y M ( \J 

?<£. jt b'i Jj «-V <d hS% 

d~ <jS 2_ c/ *$£.&&•*& Mi. ^CT u _d?l$ -.t/j 

->/ d Jh JLi dp d JL lJ(* 

?<£. dd ji _^ m? ** * <3j~c t-f-Jr 
aJ>L\* d » J* J2 *% 'if' > *sf/fiSJi 'Jijf d d> '3 

t# & 1/1/7* >\Hj -d? tfi £- £ *s 

Jif&sj Jil 6X 'iA* f 






166 



~£_W &* <z~ A *—to ^ ~Ut tf*t ^ wT if j») 

-X &\* Jl 4» jf f 



■J-Q 



8.14 Conversation Practice 



Ali: Sunita, you sit here. Reshma, you sit over there, and I'll sit by you. 

Sunita: Is the food (generally, £— t*.tf ) good here? 

Reshma: Yes, it is (generally) very good, r was here last week. The chicken curry and 

biriyani are delicious. 

Sunita: But I don't eat meat. I am vegetarian- 

Ali: You can eat lentils, bread, and yogurt. Lentils are (generally) very good. 

Reshma: Yes, they are also good for your health. 

Waiter: What do you people want to eat and drink? Would you like to eat papad? 

Ali: No, we will drink Iassi and we will eat chicken curry, biriyani, rice, lentils, 

vegetable curry, and yogurt. 

Sunita: Also, give us (/ & ) some onions and pickles. Are the pickles very hot? 

Reshma: A lot of red peppers are not good for your health. Ali also eats a lot of spices. 

Waiter: In our pickles there are no red peppers. Would you like some bread with your 



167 



food? 
Ali; Yes, we will take both bread and rice. 

8.15 Songs 



&. L \S»? <l- <& +. ^j>? &( \f 
2-£\?\t '<*.% C jC\ o\ 



168 



#t* x j? as 

Glossary for Songs 
ijZ 1 = emphatic form of f* (see ch. 12) \$$r L- = selflessness; being beside oneself; 



"only to me/us" 



ecstasy, madness (0 



\Ji l = special object form of fi (see ch. 9) j*U « goblet, cup (usually of wine) (m) 

£$? I ' = keep on constantly coming oj^. = face (m) 

^2 - just as l**~ — sweet 

f = idol; beloved, sweetheart (m) UT = past tense (feminine plural) of verb Clf 





8.16 Vocabulary 


airplane (m) 


H && 


although 


qfi'tf 


army(f) 


b* 


to catch, apprehend 


tf 


chicken (f) 


<$/ 


child <m) 


? 


childhood (m) 


4 


cold (adjective) 


\M 


cold (noun, f) 


M~ >[$>/ 


cook(m) 


iS,A 


curry (m) 


c/u 


chicken curry 


cfafit/ 



169 



meat curry \y \s % >j^^j 

vegetable curry (JT L^ dQ/* 

to die ty* 

dream (m) l^ 1 

enough! \J+ 

fear(m/f) yj 

to fear tji 

to fear x tvi <£~x 

fifty i/lg 

guest (m/f) ^k' 

health (0 ^ 

hot rV 



hunger (f) 
knife (f) 






to laugh ty 

last, past, previous; back; latter tH? 

lemon/lime (m) ^/£ '.^ 
lentils (I) (Jb 

lover (m) \JZ\t 



being a lover (f) 
meat (m) 

meat eater (m/ f) jj* <£. 






170 



milk (m) 


#33} 


mischief (f) 


&j\p 


necessity (f) 


&Ji'f 


necessity/need for x 


&ji/° y x 


noise, uproar, disturbance (m) 


,P 


onion (0 


h 


out, outside 


a£*a 


papad (crispy appetizers) (m) 




pepper (f) 


&A 


pickles (hot) (m) 




please, kindly (with w ' forms) 


CJ"6\/ *£- i)ty 




A/ iV 


(with r forms) 


hi 


relatives, family members (m) 


As&i 


rice (m pi) 


• 


rice w/ meat or vegetables (f) 


<JU 


salt (m) 


J? 


to scream, yell 


# 


season (m) 


{' 


to be shy, recitent 


M 


sick, ill (adj.); sick person (m/f) 


• 


ciHcness. illness (fl 


^ 



171 



to Sit \^rt 

song(m) JP <tftksj* 

to speak, to talk, converse iJ^A, 

• 

spices (m) iiL-^/>l^* 

sunshine, heat of sun (f) ^ fi> 

time, age; world; fortune (rn) ^U 



thief(m) 


v< 


thirst (0 


*Jk 


vegetable <f) 


6* 


vegetarian (m/f) 


6 j\& i j> 6 X 


woman (t) 


a*jf 


yogurt (m) 


\9» 



172 



Chapter 9 

The postposition J in Urdu has several uses. We will systematically discuss the most important 

uses in this chapter. 

9.1 r as a Temporal Marker 
As we have seen in previous chapters, days of the week and most of the times of the day are 
marked by / to mean "on," "in," and "at" 

I go to school every Monday. 

?<4 2-k tfr f(& « *£ 

Docs he go to the cinema in the evening? 
Note that among the times of the day only Q "morning" does not use the postposition 3 . 

9.1 Reading and Translation Drill 

-jt '£. J// *,*/*. J) f 



173 



Translate the following sentences into Urdu: 

1. We can play tennis on Saturday because we are busy on Friday. 

2. My friend drinks wine every evening. 

3. Can you read books every morning? 

4. What arc you (informal) doing tonight? 

5. Why are both of you going to school on Sunday? 

9.2 / as a Direct Object Marker 
When the direct object of an Urdu sentence is animate or specific, then / marks such an object. 

-OX 0?* f&lfi 

I send Ali. 

(subject -- direct object — object marker i « verb) 

I send that boy. 
( subject - direct object - object marker / - verb) 
Although it is necessary to use 3 with a direct object that is animate, we can see in the example 
below that yean also mark a direct object when that object is inanimate but needs to be 
emphasized. If no emphasis is intended, then 2 is not employed after inanimate objects. 

You buy this carpet, {emphasis on object) 
(subject — inanimate direct object - object marker /— verb) 

-4"*^ c^i? * w f 

You buy this carpet, (object not emphasized) 



174 



(subject — inanimate direct object — verb) 
9.2 Reading and Translation Drill 

j£l tie ji 4 L-l/Zu^ c)i f 
-\fi &j & < L.\f f &» £-/: jj/2 » 

?.»* ■£. $ fjps "{ <if 
-■£ f u? /j#j f -J? 

4r>J f& r r •*? ^ d&* - r 

*tg ^U fefc/ /W* 5 B« ^ ' •/ 
-o£ ^ fei/ /(J*/** ***> c>< f -\ji 

r£ J»J j£ fd^S J\ f ~f- ft <S* &k * 
9.2 Substitutions 

-JM ilk f&J lA -' 

that beautiful girl 

those clever boys 

your friend's brother 

his friend 

.<£_ & f<Lh Ji » J 

that vagabond 

175 



those famous actors 

our daughter 

your (least formal) doctor 

those newspapers 

the best book 

these big expensive houses 

his red shoes 

9.3 y as an Indirect Object Marker 

When a sentence has both a direct and an indirect object, only the indirect object is marked by /, 

He gives a book to Ali. 
{subject- verb-direct object-indirect object) 
The above word order is the usual order in English in which the direct object precedes the 
indirect object. In Urdu is the word order is reversed, with the indirect object usually preceding 
the direct object. 

(subject — indirect object marked by J — direct object - verb) 
if the sentence has temporal and locative elements then they are placed between the indirect and 
direct objects. 

In the evening, he can give Ali the book there, 
(subject- indirect object marked by S - temporal phrase - locative phrase —direct object — verb) 



176 






This order may slightly change depending upon the element of the sentence that needs to be 
especially emphasized. 

By placing / r*l? at the beginning of the sentence, the temporal element is emphasized. 

9.3 Reading and Translation Prill 

?j* CP-/ i_j 4*1 /(j* (* *l/ J* 

Jjf 2^ *^J jjjj /^P ^T r|/ 

Translate the following sentences into Urdu: 

1 . He gives me money every Monday. 

2. Can you give the poor money tonight? 

3. They give food to my friends every Thursday. 



JT 



177 



4. What can you give us? 

5. I can give you the world. 

9.4 r in Verbal and Adjectival Constructions ~J>1 
In Urdu the logical subject of certain verbal and adjectival constructions is sometimes marked by 
f . JZ$ "pleasing" is a predicate adjective used in constructions in which the logical subject in 
English is marked by 2 . The verb (£L- or ij?) agrees with the grammatical subject in Urdu. 

Ali likes this book. (Literally: This book is pleasing to AH.) 
( yP^= grammatical subject in Urdu, if = logical subject in English) 

-*! \H US * f ^ 

I like these things. (Literally: These things are pleasing to me.) 

( *-£-£* = grammatical subject in Urdu, \J~ = logical subject in English marked by J) 

In the sentences above, the verb agrees with the grammatical subjects in Urdu ("-^U and l£$) 

and not with the logical subjects in English. In the past tense, the auxiliary \tf, in its appropriate 

forms* replaces *£- following the same rules of agreement. 

j? jH J^ <* f*& 

I liked this fruit, 
(verb w agreeing with [/* = grammatical subject in Urdu) 

The boy liked the book, 
(verb [) agreeing with ^\J= grammatical subject in Urdu) 

-U? JH OUi" full? 



178 



The guests liked the vegetables. 

{verb (J*T agreeing with \JvJf a grammatical subject in Urdu) 

9.4 Reading and Translation Drill 

-ut Ji&ti jSVu ff 
-^ j% ** tf j? f A je 

^ j% *r $P& o / r r ,f 

-c- xi wU £^j)ji>i 01 Mi » /eft 

-l? d$ jH ■>¥ $M fk - r 
j? j£ H tSuEig *jU f& 

Translate the following sentences into Urdu: 

1 . 1 like Madonna very much . 

2. Some people like tea more than coffee. 

3. Do you (least formal) lake these big buildings? 

4. I like biriyani very much but I can't eat rice. 

5. i don't like meat, but I like sweets very much. 

6. Did Reshma like the Chinese food? 

179 



7. When Ravi was in India, he did not like watching Indian movies. 

8. He is my favorite actor but he cannot sing well. His voice is not very good. 

9.5 J in Infinitive + ^— Construction 

3 marks the logical subject of "the infinitive + C- " construction which conveys that something 
"has to be," "is necessary," or "must be done." 

_*_ fc*> /J* 

AH has to study. 

_^ Of f(£j 

Rahim has to go. 
At times, the verbal infinitive may have an object. In such a situation, in some dialects of 
Urdu-Hindi the infinitive agrees with that object: 

Ali has to read the book. 
In the above sentence, the verbal infinitive fc-*£ has been declined to lj i? because ta-*C-\ the 
object of ***£> is feminine. In order to make a negative sentence, ^/? is used. 

Ali doesn't have to study/read. 

Ali doesn't have to study/read {emphatic). 
In the past and future tenses, the verb £— is replaced by the auxiliary L^ or % 3t\ 

Rahim had to go home. 



180 



Jjt Ur/ff- 



J 



Rahim will have to go home. 



r • 



AH had to read the book. 
In the last sentence, the verb ij 0% agrees with the gender of its object i— '1/ 

9.6 Infinitive as the Subject 
In the "infinitive + C- " construction, the infinitive can also act as the subject of the sentence. 

It is necessary to study/studying is necessary. 
If an adjective is inserted between the infinitive and <£_, then the adjective becomes the 
predicate of the infinitive. 

It is good to study/studying is good. 
In the past and future tenses, the auxiliaries t^ and IF Jf replace ^-: 

It was good to study/ studying was good. 

Jfst \ii b»% 

It will be good to study/studying will be good. 
9.5-9.6 Reading and Translation Drill 

-^ b*% atf. &1 / J- 
?<i- l*% &$■ & ff*£ 

181 



.^ if ok fjg, » i/fefi 
"■J crjy <fff$ i/( Ju- & 

* - * 

Translate the following sentences into Urdu: 

1 . I have to write these three essays (papers) by tomorrow. 

2. Do you have to read your friend's letters at this time of the night? 

3. I have to go to school on Sunday. 

4. What do they have to do tomorrow afternoon? 

5. She doesn't have to cook. 

6. What did you have to do all day yesterday? 

9-7 / in ^-jf Constructions 

£%-[? constructions are similar to "the infinitive + dL. " construction in that the logical subject 



182 



in such constructions is also marked by jf . i±Jg is an impersonal verb form ihal may be 
preceded by either a noun or a verbal infinitive. In case of a noun, the construction means that 
ihe noun is desired, wanted, or needed by the logical subject. For example, 

Jim wants a book, 
(logical subject "Jim" marked by / ) 

-2ft Aj, /^> Jt W J\ 
In this world everyone needs love, 
(logical subject "everyone" marked by /) 
If the object desired is plural, then Q\p may be optionally nasalized: 

Do you want these clothes? 

In the past tense, the i^Jg construction uses the past auxiliary I/. Since the logical subject is 
marked by J , the past auxiliary will agree in number and gender with the desired object 
Examples: 

Raj wanted an apple, (the auxiliary W agreeing with *-*£") 

Nargis wanted some saris, (the auxiliary \J~ agreeing with ^l-^U') 
In order to convey the sense that something "ought to" or "should be" done, a verbal infinitive is 
placed before ^Lw. The logical subject continues to be marked by j , which cuts off agreement 
between it and the impersonal £^}f : 



183 



~2*U t*£ / J* 



Ali ought to study/read. 



•> A 



The little girl ought to sleep now. 
In some dialects of Urdu-Hindi, the verbal infinitive is made to agree m number and gender with 
its object, if it has one: 

jgft 0r> -cr/J* 

Ali ought to read the book, 
(verb &*-£ agreeing with its object ^^ ) 

The shopkeeper ought to sell these fruits. 

(verb CC* agreeing with its object {J? ) 

•* 
In the past tense, \tf is added at the end of the sentence. This auxiliary will agree in number and 

gender with any object of the verbal infinitive. Examples: 

-IS £*)g Ws /£ 

Ali ought to have/should have studied. 

jl ^y & JC /juts* 

The shopkeeper ought to have/should have sold these fruits. 
t^U constructions may be put into the negative by using the particle ijJ . Placing fjZ 1 
toward the end of the sentence increases the emphasis of the negation. Example: 

184 



A college student should not drink alcohol! 
9.1 Reading and Translation Drill 

-£M* tu o\> / J. 
^tffl € ff 

Jft k»% M\ 3*j A /^l 
•'^ $fd$ j\s Ct-jZff 

jfytf ji f ah» f ^ 

f£ft cd* «- /f l/-tf- J*- «*« id$ * 

A V T 

-O^U J4 yji jtf> .J< / J*^ elf 
J? Q\r ti JSt jf»ij c. of^ •**/ fjJ*J 

Translate the following sentences into Urdu: 

1 . He ought to write these papers (essays) now. 

2. We ought to eat but we have to go there. 

3. Sunil ought not to have fallen in love with Nargis! 

185 



Jf 



J 



_r 



4. Both these houses are expensive. Would you like to buy them? 

5. I would like some salt, onions, and bread. 

6. Wc ought to wash our clothes.. 

7. The guest wanted some more alcohol. 

8. Sheila's brother wants five shirts. 

9. The patient (sick person) ought to have drunk this medicine. 

1 0. Rahim should have sold this beautiful carpet yesterday. 

9.8 J with Abstract Possessions 
i marks the possessor of abstract nouns such as "tiredness" (\y ), "happiness" ((.T-^), 
"worry" (/), "leisure" (C^/) and so on. In this construction, the verb agrees with the abstract 
noun being possessed since the logical subject in English is marked with J . We will discuss this 
further in Chapter 1 1 when we consider expressions of possession. 

-^ J* U 

I am tired. 

Do you have free time? 

We are very worried. 

Sunil needed money (lit. Sunil had the need for money). 

In the last example above, the past tense auxiliary {J is in the feminine agreeing with the 

> 
abstract noun <*>J)f . 

186 



9.8 Reading and Translation Drill 

_^ cF ff M\4 ^j \*Jo\>f 
_^_ \S? **s f J- .£- \j 1 &u% \jt J J 

■f \$J If U* 6 A if' » -fsffiS-?' && ffih^ 

~d$ *s) /J- j£ <j/<j? J. j 

.<*# ^Jy* &/. u bl~f &*J es.f&ij' 

-if ^ji/ 1 ^. \£&>) f/ifa ^4~ 
!?i/ &»? \£\£ L.1 ok. /$? 



187 



Translate the following sentences into Urdu; 

1 . My friends can play tomorrow because they have free time (leisure). 

2. I cannot work because I am very tired. 

3. Are you (informal) happy today? 

4. No. I am worried because tomorrow evening 1 have to go to school. 

5. I have some free time today and I ought to play tennis. 

6. The patient needed the best doctor (lit. had need of the best doctor). 

7. Did you need more books from the library last night? (lit. did you have the need for more 
books from the library last night?) 

9,9 Special Object Forms 
When certain pronouns in the oblique case are combined with J > they generally have a special 
form: 

f* I 

A/* cJ 

/> ^ 

fm ttf.i 

/</ * 

U of 

188 



The use of these special forms is: considered preferable in idiomatic Urdu. 

I have to work. 
Both these sentences are grammatically correct, but the second sentence is more idiomatic. Note 
that the combination of pronouns and postpositions is only possible when the postposition J 
immediately follows the pronouns. 

9.9 Reading and Translation Drill 

-<p tU \Jjp &f A J 

-+.>%*+ J? 

tut £ JZ^ /wf .[/ 

J d< &sj \$LJft 4 cJ J? 

189 






Translate the following sentences into Urdu using the special object form. 

1 . He has a lot of work but he has to go there. 

2. Do you (informal) have free time? We don't have free time. 

3. To whom will you (least formal) give this book? 

4. I will send him in the evening. 

5. Do you (informal) have a cough? 

6. I should have gone home last night! I am very sick today - 

9.10 Stem + y/Zl 
When two actions are performed consecutively by the same subject, the sentence is formed in 
this manner: 

stem of the infinitive of the first verb + J lc— + conjugated form of second verb. 
The enclitics J or ^— divide the two actions and can be used interchangeably unless the first 
verb is %J or a complex verb formed with tJ . If this is the case then only the enclitic L- can 
be used. 

Having danced, I sing, 
(subject — verb 1 stem — enclitic — verb 2) 
The second verb is conjugated and agrees with the subject. 

Having done work, I watch T.V. 
190 



The "stem + J " construction occurs in one of the common Urdu phrases used to express 
"please/* Instead of using *=^- (JL^/.for "please" or "kindly," the phrase £-J (Jl// (lit. 
"having done a kindness") may be used. In formal Urdu, the verb tL/* (lit. "to order, to 
command") is sometimes used instead of fcr , resulting in the phrase J If 0{yf (lit. "having 
commanded a kindness") being employed as a very polite equivalent of the English "please." 

!£?>-l ±y &* it|l a. i& 

Please fasten the child's seat belt. 
Combine the two sentences in the following manner and then translate them into English: 

Example: 

Having eaten the food, I go home. 

-<Z-C£ J&U -<Z- t>> J& §S J 

* IT* 



191 



9.10 Reading and Translation Drill 

* 
-4_ J m? J ^M f\.) jty 



9.11 Noun-Verb Agreement in Urdu 

In Urdu, if there are several inanimate nouns, the number-conjugation of the verb will depend on 
the last object in the series. 

192 



-<z~ J>i &f. $sj jiS <Jb<J*Jf s J- 
I like rice, dal, and bread. 
The end verb is C- instead of ijt because {jiJ is singular. If the series of nouns has animate 
beings, then the verb will be in (he plural: 

I like Ali, Rashid, Ravi, and Gita very much. 
9.11 Reading and Translation Drill 

*JlJi&t u\c& ^ $k* ft/I 

Translate the following sentences into Urdu: 

1. Sheila likes Matt Damon, Brad Pitt, and Tom Cruise. Which actors do you like? 

2. Please give Neil and Dimple apples, oranges, and milk. 

3. Do you (least formal) like chicken curry and rice? 

4. Do you (informal) like Lata Mangeshkar and Muhammad Rafi? — WTio are they? 

5. We don't like Amitabh Bachchan. Our favorite actor is Shahrukh Khan. 
<>. Mallar liked that blue shirt. 
7. Abid has to buy some pens and books from the store. 

9.12 Cardinal Numbers 51-60 

M 01 



dLZ *r 



d% 


&r 


4 


&& 


^ 


61 


djfr 


az 


Q)3\&\ 


dh 


tf 


&<\ 



9.13 Expressing Time with the Enclitic J/IL 
The verb l£, "to strike, 1 ' is used in Urdu to express time in phrases that are equivalent to the 
English "o'clock. ■ In order to express complete hours, the past participles of C£ - lfV£~ are 

used, t^ is only used for 1 , and *L~ for all other numbers. 

It's one o'clock. ^<£_ \f* wXl 

It's eleven o'clock. -(J? £_ oJJ 

For expressions indicating minutes past the hour y \% is combined with the enclitic J }c-~. 
In order to say 8; 1 0, one would say "having struck 8, it is 1 minutes." 

8:10 ~\Jt O^ \Ji f%Jft 

5:20 -t# o^r U? £* t> m 

In this construction, J }L— arc added to the stem of C£ and then followed by the number of 
minutes. To express minutes before the hour, the postposition ij» is used instead of J ltL~ 
with the verb C£, The postposition <J~ puts the infinitive Cf into the oblique. 

9:40 -Ut %1& *J$ JZ&r \Jj 



194 



(literally: There are twenty minutes in the striking often.) 
To state that something will occur or take place at a certain time, the postposition / is used for 
"at," when a specific number of minutes is mentioned. With other lime expressions involving 
complete hours (or fractions of hours), the postposition is generally not explicitly used but 
implied. Consequently the past participle of v£ is used in its oblique form, i.e., Z-. Example: 

jS? 4- i/i & 

The train will depart at ten o'clock. 

- i/jrt jtv L- jTi tfj 

The train will depart at one o'clock. 
(Note: past participles in above two examples arc in the implied oblique) 

The airplane is arriving at five minutes past ten. 

The airplane is arriving at five minutes to ten. 
To express a.m. or p.m., the time of the day is stated with i if appropriate: 

Come at two p.m. (lit. two o'clock in the afternoon)! 
Sometimes the possessive Z— may also be used in this construction instead of i : 

Where were you going at ten o'clock at night (at 10 p.m.)? 

I To express exact time, the word u£* is used before the time expression: 



Our little daughter wakes every morning at exactly 4 o'clock. 
9.13 Reading and Translation Drill 

J? MA jV qw J, jt £. jl _r 

_fc* jbj cl. 6^ J.j 6u$ ii € £-£■ 4W o^ 

s* -£ § Jtt-cfJ'^ *ftf 'V 
-ut c-j til t>j^f£c*\j *>} if 1 -c- yij Old' rf 



196 



Write out the following times in Urdu: 

1. 1:00 11. ll:39p.m 

2. 2:10 12. 12;40a.m. 

3. 3:17 13. 1:43 

4. 4:20 p.m. 14. 2:47 a.m. 

5. 5:22 a.m. 15. 3:49 p.m. 

6. 6:24 16. 4:51p.m. 

7. 7:25 17. 5:52 a.m. 

8. 8:28 p.m. 18. 6:54 p.m. 

9. 9:32 19. 7:55 

10. 10:37 20. 8:58 p.m. 
Translate the following passage into English: 



fJ&/* -f- KJ tff JJ fm* -^ 1^> &£ \f fcf ^ ~U* &J 
m ^ \$j a>*s Jt JZjfif os -^ cK" iS/£ 6i> - U fys ^- iSp \fi 

,jyt> L£ ^ LV ^ Y f 4# ~f- jrffi/ f ,y % **^ ^ 



197 



9.14 P" (Conversation) 

*x \f ^> jtf- db*. ^ /if 

hJj* t/^Jr L '-^ ^' ^ -f- <^ <zS- ^ 'O '■^ J ~ J 

Iji (jty *$ &f J\s <-j£ ( **£ '*/) 

-Us< (f Offr U*~ l U\ '0\ ■■&' 

i* eft ~f€ (t^Jn J 



198 






*■ 






9.15 Conversation Practice (1) 

Create a dialogue with at least 8-10 sentences, using the following words and constructions: 



A 



M 



infinitive +■ 



infinitive *wf 



verbal stem 



9.15 Conversation Practice (2) 



Anil: 
Madhu: 

Anil; 



Madhu; 



Hello, Madhu, how are you? 



Fine, thanks. What are you doing here? Do you come to work even on Sunday? 
No, I don't come every Sunday, but I have to do a lot of work today. Having 



done my work, 1 can play tennis with Ashwin, 



Yes, I also don't have a lot of free time. Having done this work, I have to 



199 



cook. There is no food in the house- 
Anil; Would you like to play tennis with Ashwin and mc? Playing tennis is good for 

health. We play tennis at five o'clock. 
Madhu: I like tennis very much but I ought to study. Can I play with both of you 

tomorrow? 
Anil: Yes, we can play tomorrow. I have to go. 1 am meeting Ashwin at ten minutes 

to five at his house. 
Madhu: Take these. These are very good sweets. 

Anil: These sweets are very good. Can I give them to Ashwin? 

Madhu: No, you eat these. I can make more for Ashwin tomorrow. 

9.16 Songs 

**- *** ^ dk % v (i 

** ~, t 

ft ft fj ^ {fk 

ft ft U? # d* 

f9 (9 &* ji\ <Jx 

200 



*~\S*2* 



(- 



******* ft* 

( — t e t e) 

Cf. up *f- ^/i /f & 

(^ up ^ /tf| / / 
( t e t t)?^_ % «. J- f( >i 

(^ jp ? ^ A»J ^ *? 



(r 



14 ^X 4 — j»4 ty fc 






201 



Glossary- for Songs 

\J fi = understanding, awareness (m) \J = (lower bud (0 

{*/■£ ~ youthfulness; adolescence (m) Jbr, = glow, shine; freshness (m) 

\J £ = fervor, zeal, ardor (m) Af I = consent, agreement (m) 

\J i) = fault, blemish (m) J&{ = refusal, denial (m) 

{jytJi= intoxicating; stupefying; perplexing J*/ £~-= restless, uneasy, anxious 



^ I = arm; sleeve (f) 




• 


= confidence, trust (m) 


1^1/ — to hold; to seize 




g/- 


desire, wish (f) 


(**t-X-= disreputable, infamous 




6J6i 


= promise (m) 


J\^ m = spring season (f) 




rV 


my beloved (Persian) 




9.17 Vocabulary 


to call/invite 






tf 


to come out, to arise; to 


depart 




& 


to depart, to set out 






byt Jku 


cough (i) 






j\f 


to enter (formal Urdu) 






til jftjl 


essay/composition (m) 






o^ 


fever; wrath; steam (m) 






y(T- 


girlfriend (for girls) 






Jf 


hand (m) 






J\ 


happiness (f) 






M 


hour (m) 






v£ 



202 






in that direction/in this direction J°j\ ffjl 

intention (m) fciL/J 

intoxicating h^-""* 

late <z— -/J 

leisure; free time (f) iJi^ ' / 



medicine (I) 



worry (f. or rn.) 






pleasing <&L 

poor thing/fellow (f/m) \$Mt*M. 






quiet/silent fj^v 

to sell 



*" 






to send 
shirt(f) 

to sit down (formal Urdu) 
sixty 

some, few; scanty, little; less 
stroll, walk, tour (f) jC 

to stroll, to take a walk, to tour 
tiredness (f) 



*i 






voice, sound, noise (f) J*3 ' 



to wake up/rise I? If /B* ' 

to wash CxJ 



J 



203 



Chapter 10 
10.1 The Verb tlf, "To Know" 
The verb w'lf , the generic form of the verb "to know," is used in the following instances: 

1 . When the subject desires to express familiarity/acquintance with a person. 

2. When the subject expresses knowledge about a general fact or an area/field or a skill. 
When t'U is used in cases in which its object is animate or specific, then the object is marked by 
j . Remember that j is a postposition and nouns/pronouns marked by it will be in the oblique. 

-Ok OU /&li* j* 

(subject - object — object marker /- verb) 
I know Salman. 

(subject — object — object marker y — verb) 
I know this boy. 
-LM Olf <JA j$ vJ jt 
I know Urdu and Hindi. 
In the last example, Urdu and Hindi are inanimate objects, so they are not marked by J . 
Important note: The verb l£lf should not be coniused with the verb tlf "to go." The stem of Hf 
is c/U while that of tlf is If. Thus (JjH Plf \JL means "I know" while \Jjtf t*lf jZ 
means "1 go." Similarly, K \Jty U» means "1 will know" and Dlj5lf tj~ means "I will go." 



204 



10.1 Reading and Translation Drill 

?Ut 2LU fjsfft *J A/ 

<!J2 ^_U ft I V U <\f 
-<L\ \J$ ft \/t M -j3* J 

?t# 214? tfe/f JV ^ w .f 

t i#V ^J <*Z 6m <^' 

!(/ cflf i-e £ U>3^ d\ <s"f (fH e'\A of 



10.1 Substitutions 



these girls 

that beautiful girl 

your brother 

his family 

?£. <L\* ji f({) « 4 - r 

these players/athletes 
those students 



205 



our daughters 

this clever girl 

Hindi German 

Gujarati Bengali 

names of these people their names 
this famous poet that clever boy's name 
10.2 tjt {&* Construction 
ist f r*\ or "to be known," is a complex verbal formation, formed with the predicate adjective 
fj*^ and the auxiliary verb fc/f . In comparison to fc-lf , the construction tfi fr** is used in 
a restricted context. It primarily denotes knowledge of one specific fact or a group of 
ascertainable facts such as: 

1. times of the day 

2. prices of things 

3. names of people, etc. 

fc- \f, being a more expansive verb "to know," can often replace t.K (****'* ,but the reverse is 
usually not possible. In t>f fs 9 ^ constructions, the logical subject in English is marked by 1 \ 

Do you know the time? 
(Note: Although w ' is the logical subject in English, in Urdu it is actually the grammatical 
object, and JZJ) is the grammatical subject, with which the verb \,yt agrees. The literal 
translation of the example above is: "Is the time known to you?") 



206 



tug f J* ft £ \j\f\j\*\Jf 

Does he know their names? 
In the example above, the verb fc# is in the plural because the grammatical subject in Urdu (p*C) 
is plural. 

-*/ f-y *£ £3 i/j /^ 

I don't know the price of this thing. 
In the past tense, the appropriate form of the auxiliary w is used: 

I knew that he was worried. 
Similar to the ttf f ' y 9 * construction, but perhaps more colloquial, is one that employs the word 
£, meaning "trace, clue, hint; address." It too is used with the verb ijt with the logical subject 
in English being marked by /to indicate knowledge of a specific fact or piece of information. 

Do you know where is the Shalimar garden? 

Sir, I don't know. 
£ may also be used with the verb l^, with the logical subject in English marked by r, as the 
verb "to come to know." 

When will we (come to) know about this matter? 



207 



10.2 Reading and Translation Drill 

-/ (^ U? &A Sif/u^ *& U< Jf 

.*=_ fj* h* SJ\s £ Y 1 /j. 

t+ f>* 6^t- lT^i *_,i* / v r <ur 

-^ f>* &J tfodr &i ffl _r 

-f- lM*m ft M ~<~ f>" /^ *c4 iJ- 



2Q8 



10.3 The Verb 6 J and Knowledge of Learned/ Acquired Skills 

We have already encountered t i in its meaning "to come." 1 1 is also used in constructions in 
sentences that denote the knowledge of a learned/acquired skill. In such a construction, the 
logical subject in English is marked by J , thus becoming an object in Urdu. The verb agrees 
with the grammatical subject in Urdu or the logical object in English: 

I know Urdu. 

?<^ frf IV- >$* /wf <l/ 
t • / v *» 

Do you know how to play sarod? 
In the first sentence, the verb is feminine because its grammatical subject (Urdu) is feminine. In 

the second sentence, the verb is masculine because its grammatical subject, the infinitive J9y^ 
tv^ r "to play sarod/' is a verbal noun in the masculine. Note that the grammatical subject of 1 1 
can either be a proper noun, 9Jjl t or a verbal noun, tl^. Sometimes, the agreement of the verb 
will vary depending on the definition of the grammatical subject: 

?^ rf to? \$#f>J <\S 

Do you know how to drive a car? 
The grammatical subject in the sentence above is tl^ ij)c /'driving a car/ 1 hence the verb is in 
the mascul ine. 

Do you know how to drive a car? 
Jn the second example, since ijip is feminine, the infinitive ti^ can take on a feminine ending, 
and in that case so will the verb 1 1 . In the past tense, the appropriate form of the auxiliary l^ is 



209 



used. 

Raj used to know how to dance. 
10.3 Reading and Translation Drill 

-<f- trf £/ A J 

?^tf tsf£ <\f 

t • •• 

-<=_ fc-T tlf ^ <uj, J. 

.^ fc-r tj/^ ^r 

.£. Iff lf({/u£? Ul 

-i> J ti% ^/r> r cri 

?U^ t-r tife- ;/ u/ 

-^ <Jf Jyjs ^ J\ _J 

10.3 Substitutions 

how to dance 

how to swim 

how to cook 

how to eat 

210 



Uf_ t-T) (tJ) /t/y .r 

will know how to read this book 
used to know how to cook Indian food 
used to know a little Chinese 
will know how to make yogurt 
10.3 Translations 
Translate the following into idiomatic Urdu: 

1 . Do you know my favorite -actor? 

2. I know who Javed Akhtar is, but I don't know him (personally). He is a poet, isn't he? 

3. Excuse me, sir, do you know where is the post office? 

4. My grandmother (maternal) used to know the famous actor Dihp Kumar. 

5. I know that Amitabh Bacchan is taller than you (informal). 

6. Does Nargis know how to make spaghetti with Indian spices? 

10.4 The Verb C^V, "To Ask" 

When &?J "to ask" is used in Urdu, the indirect object is followed by a <=— : 

-u* Hi *- if* ^ 

I ask him. 
(subject — indirect object -- marker CL~ — verb) 

I will ask that woman, 
(subject — indirect object — marker ££-— verb) 
The direct object, if animate or specific, is followed by ij~ *—A £-• Ifthe object is not 

211 



animate or specific, the use of \jZ <; — vL Zl is optional. 

I am asking him about All. 
(subject — indirect object — marker £i- — animate direct object — object marker \ji ^~jL I— 
-verb) 

j? c^y ijt^A £&\ aO ^t tf ^ j-i \Jt 

I used to ask him about this matter. 

(subject -- indirect object — marker £i- — inanimate direct object — verb) 

10.4 Reading and Translation Drill 

~c- l^y ft t\$& £-jt )j\tz- /• u J 

-<=. i^y ft £ off o'i *- ( m | 

-tf* (J<y G< if o'i c- $ if 1 jiot'uf I 

J& u$ S « ? * «h <^ u/«- ^ ^ r^' ^ J'^ a- f 7 - r 
a£*4 Jy J^ wT< c y>-£.^c^l c// 4** w 



212 









10.4 Substitutions 

That girl 

These boys 

My brother 

Your clever friend 

ajx&h £ 4~h cdSncdLfM - r 

that girl you r brother 

that boy these doctors 

that vagabond's home my father 

Irnran Khan's address that athlete 
10.5 -The Verb l^ with C~ and / 
The meaning of certain verbs changes depending upon the postposition with which they are 
used. 

1) t* + postposition ^— to mark the object means "to meet": 

I meet (with) Ali. 

They meet (with) those girls. 
In the above sentences, the object (of meeting) is marked with CL~. 

2) fc* + postposition s to mark its logical subject in English means "to get, obtain, find": 

213 



I find God there. 

-u! & stZ » A/1 

He gets those things. 

Where do you gel (hese books? 
In the above sentences, the logical subject in English, that is the person/thing who is getting, 
obtaining, or finding something is marked by / . Note that the verb in all the sentences agrees 
with the things that are being obtained or found. 

10.5 Reading and Translation Drill 

-O* few 

?l£ -£. J &. t& & & \f- iuU f if J 
-s£ J uif c [ft o\i ^ <u? 

*d£ & tf£ *** * it M f-£ 'f - r 

1+. v. fok. J& 

.ajffjCjk J>i 

214 



ku tfjic c^.c- <J\ u -& ejfb USf-V «tft/0 *&flJ* 

Translate into Urdu: 

1 . We are meeting those boys today. 

2. Can I meet that famous professor? 

3. They get all those beautiful things in India. 

4. What can you (informal) get in Canada? 

5. Those girls want to meet Shahrukh Khan. 

6. Where will I find medicine for this illness? 

7. Raj used to get sweets from this famous sweet shop. 

10.6 The Verb tf with C- and / 
When the verb t? means "to tell," the person to whom something is being said or told is usually 
marked by GL~. 

1 tell them. 

^U* \gf&\ jT' c- erf U» 

I tell them a thing. 
When the object of v^ is marked by J , then it means to call the object something, usually 
something negative, but not necessarily so. 

215 



What do people call you? 

-U7 2£&H for* £ wT J> 

People call your lips rubies. 



What is this thing called in English? 
10.6 Reading and Translation Drill 

-Jtf tflti ^ £^ Jl jt _l 

-^ if US ^ * *=- ^ M 

Translate the following sentences into Urdu; 
1 . Why are you telling me these things? 



216 



2. Tell him, "don't go there." 

3. What is "love" in Urdu? 

4. What does he tell your friends? 

5. What does he call your friends? 

10.7 Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives 
{}j can be used as a pronoun or an adjective and, depending on context, may mean "someone, 
anyone, any; approximately." 

Somebody is playing over there. 
When (J j is used as a pronoun in an affirmative sentence, then it means somebody* anybody, or 
a particular person. (J J as a pronoun subject is usually singular, hence the verb remains 
singular too. When \Jj is used with \J$ , then it means nobody. 

Nobody was over there. 
(j.y may also be used as an adjective, as in the following sentence: 

?c- \j 7 (£>f(jyV 

Is some man coming? 

Do you need any book from the library? 
The oblique form of J/ is <J '. 

You ask someone concerning this matter. 
217 



Before specific numbers i}jf may also be used as an adjective meaning "some, approximately." 
In this case its oblique form is the same as the nominative: 

The price of this shirt was approximately three hundred rupees. 

Among these fifty apples, approximately four or five will be rotten. 
Note: Following idiomatic usage, the noun ^J" in the second sentence does not adopt its plural 
oblique form because a specific number -- t/L^ — precedes it. 

j% can also be used as an indefinite pronoun or adjective. Depending on context, it may mean 
"something, anything; somewhat; some, any; a little." 

There is something over there. 
Jr as an adjective means some or a few. 

There were some boys playing over there. 
When £f<g is used with {J3 it means "nothing." 

There is nothing over there. 
When used with ij it means "anything at all, anything whatsoever; nothing at all." 

fife {££*- M A^fJ^Ai {/ 

Mummy darling, do you want anything at all from the market? 



218 



10.7 Reading and Translation Drill 

V o^J'if^f - 1 

JZ&VJ U[> &/• if 
j£ 0( jt c- ifji v f «J 
-^ if (iff if & -^ ft a* U^c 

-m uz ifr £ot/c t/f j 

9 -ul U£ Jjy £d"~ d£> £ wf <\f 

■aj* &% Hi it M £ um «- u/> 4V 



219 



t 

Translate into idiomatic Urdu: 

1 . Do you need some work? 

2. The poor boy is so sick on account of love that he cats nothing at all. 

3. Can anyone take (use verb tlf *-~) this chi Id to the hospital? He is somewhat sick. 

4. Is there any need (CWV^) to go to Delhi? 

5. I think that at night you will not be able to get any taxis from the hotel. 

6. Because of air pollution, I will not stay in Los Angeles. 

10.8 Fractions and Mass Measurements 





Fractions 




Fractions used to express quantity in Urdu 


are as follows 




quarter 




ft 

9 


half 






3/4 




*4 


1 1/4 




\y 


numeral 
1 m 


+ 1/4 


numeral + W 
h A 



2 1/2 



jw 



220 



numeral + 1/2 numeral + GL-jis 

(except for 11/2 and 2 1/2, see above) 

Note: Uo I and £)J are only used as adjectives with nouns and not with numerals. 
<i— £ [lit. quarter less than] is used before numerals to mean three quarters, 

1 3/4 kilo mangoes [lit. quarter less than two). 

Please cut 3 3/4 yards [lit. quarter less than four]. 
-&»$g $sj if J* & 

T want half a bread. 

_ eft ilu tfe ui d? 

We want 3/4 cup of tea. 
Note; Z-Vand^— '\s can only be used with numerals and not with nouns. 

I want 5 1/2 kilos of apples. 

Do they want 1 3/4 kilos of meat? 
Review of Fractions from 1-4 

•a 

sj \y 3 1/4 c£ \y 
fjw 3 1/2 ate** 

cX ,Ly 33/4 A *Ly 

(^4 -/If 

221 



1/4 


SI 1 1/4 


Ir- 


2 1/4 


1/2 


UuTrjrjl 1 1/2 


*£i 


21/2 


3/4 


jy 1 3/4 


« L.J 


2 3/4 


1 


jCi 2 


*J 


3 



Note: Numbers larger than four follow the same pattern to express fractions as for the numeral 
3. 

Mass Measurements 

In the previous chapters we have seen that mass nouns in Urdu (O*) are treateo * ** singular 
entities just like their English counterparts: 

This water is good. 
Similar logic is followed for other nouns like {J /? (vegetables). 

-+ ifi \$J? * 

This vegetable is good. 
The above sentence expresses the opinion that a specific type of vegetables^ in mass quantity, is 
good. If you want to express that more than one kind of vegetables are good, then ijyf' should 
be expressed in plural form: 

These vegetables (different kinds) are good. 
As far as specific measurements are concerned, the words used to express measurements 
immediately precede the thing that is being measured. 

-Jj dfe J& 

One cup (of) sugar. 



f 
Two spoons (of) salt. 

Note that Urdu disposes of any possessive postpositions that are the equivalent of the English 

222 



■of 





10.9 Telling Time in Fractions 


12:45 




1:00 


t • •• 


1:15 




1:30 




1:45 




2:00 




2:15 


-t| £_ jj Ir- 


2:30 


-at £_ jw 


2:45 


-L* 4r d 2-4 


3:00 


-m^rd 


3:15 


-Ul ^ v? ir 


3:30 


-c£ £_ \J> <*Jt" 



The pattern is regular from 3:30 to 1 2:30. 

As we have seen in Chapter 9, the past participle of C£ (\f-l£~) is used as the Urdu equivalent 
of o'clock. As long as the base number is 1 , time is expressed as l^, that is, in the singular. 
Note that 30 minutes past the hour is expressed through dZ-jKs except in the case of 1 :30 
{&/■>) and 2:30 (CSU'J). To express am or pm, times of the day such as (J/ , J& )), C^-, and 
&ij are used. 

-L? S) *Ly CO ;& i) 1:45 pm 

Write out the following times in Urdu: 

223 



5:45 pm, 6.30 am, 7:15 am, 12:45 am, 2:30 am, 2:45 pm, 1:15pm, 8:00 am, 1:30 am, 11:45 pm 

10.9 Reading and Translation Drill 

~&±b Jjb jf% f J* J 

*lft & it mil f ,J tf 

-ty off j/&i // <uiT J. 
?t| ^ LV J< ^it ZJU / wT 4/ 

— • 

lift mm Jfe 4 u/ 4/ 

T* r * ' w 

Answer the following questions in complete Urdu sentences: 

?c£ 2Llf /(/" l£ hi 6\ ^ -' 



224 



*£$ ^Tl/ /"student" Ui «J -^ 

?<rf £--< ^ £ c/~ r ^ jr 
fig jL/y 4 Jui Jm^ v T jf 



10.10 Cardinal Numbers 61-70 






225 



y< 


11 


yi 


w 


(Jrts )Jrj, 


ir 


**4 


if 


jja 


ia 


•• • 


11 


O>0 jry 


1^. 


fr% 


1A 




^19 


r 


£* 






10.11 ^(Conversation) 

?<f- ^l/ £-£ *F J ^f fc*f,J? (J" f ^t >\f-j£ :J 

jj» m -a* &\ h} d*' ASjs Jd't ■»< fdf lA <U[ 'U[ -uO 

iu* w iT&o \S~ S c- fk* f&i <j/~l£ ef& «4' *** 

fj* J^S* £-U 4_*i (/( f A/\th - JQ 

1*1 -«f_ I* <=- l/f -f, vie- **S lfc~ liX -l£ ^V f* J 5 t/ : L? 



226 



(c. t-r jlJwJ) 

r -c-\f* &?■ if' Mj -# (f <-> && /k*J ( <U? <i/f &j 

\U •£. ef &J fj\ J* fjP 

-0* J 7 !f % ^' iji '(/' «i?f f i# 60 $M\tf. -u? ■u r y 

.££" A f -u* &% ^;if ! 

-Jjf 0% J\s -£_V [f \J. H &J 

!% i/L £ W, -t^ :(/0 

10.12 Conversation Practice 

Anil: Hello Usha. This is my friend Seema. We are going to buy paan for Seerna's mother. 

Usha: Yes, I know Seema. She studies with me. 

Seema: How are you, Usha? 

Usha: f ine, thanks. Anil, do you know how to drive a car? 

Anil: No, I don't. But Seema knows how to drive a car. Where do you have to go? 

Usha: I have to go to Shehla's house. She is very ill. But her house is very faT and the bus 

227 



always C-%\) leaves late. 
Seema: I know Shehla. She is a good friend of mine. Can we come along with you to Shehla's 

house? 
Usha: Of course. I have to buy some fruits for Shehla. Can we all go to the fruitseller's shop? 
Anil: Do you know the address of the fruitseller's shop? 
Usha: Yes, it is near that big hospital. 
Anil: OK, let's go after half an hour. Seema and I will be here with the car at 4:30 pm. Be 

ready! 

10.13 Songs 

L.if if, t cSj \S/' d~* 
\A-J* i/' (# iff* — U* tfuzw 

-^ if £ u <=_ if & 

e- lf> fjL JU js jfft 

— ut J^ i/'~ if> &S/L-J0 $/f~ifr i/f 

228 



a. J If >U JTi (r 

• « 

^_ & jii tT y ,_>• IT ^ 
— (^y tr X >j* o-^ 

Glossary for Songs 
^iy = a lord, prince, governor (m) fyy* = wave (f) 

&J = season (f) i)hj - flow, flux, going (0 

uS^V ^f/% (/"=season filled with intoxication C^-£? = life, existence; livelihood (m) 
,•?= song, melody (m) 



10.14 Vocab. 


ulary 




address; hint, clue, trace (m) 




§ 


to come to know; to find out 




I** 


air, wind (f) 




Hi 


aerial 




J*^ 


air pollution (f) 




J^A* 


to be/become upset, angry 




tM ju 


birthday (f) 




Jv 



11% 



to call (something a name) (use with /) ty 

cup(f) Jt, 

date/history (f) fjJs 

to drive tlU 

to drive a car tLb (jjtf 

to find ^ 



kilogram 



to lose 



V 



generally, often; most; many 

half IpJttfaS 



0> 



(numeral* half) JLj\s 



it 



to know tSi fjfc* ffc-W 

j 
life, lifetime; afso age (f) f 



yf 



manner, style (0 Z/s 

minister (government) (m/f) / }) 

prime minister (m/f) f \ Jjs 

nobody {jtf (jj 

nothing \jti J^ 

one and a quarter \y 

one and a half &%j 

owl; fool ; stupid (m) y\ 



230 



permission (f) &> j\? f 

to give permission (to leave) Ifc J 0>U( 

lo play (an instrument) tl^ 

price, cost (f) ct~C 

purpose, intent; motive (m) ^Jfi-'* 

quarter 51 

question (rn) \J\y 

numeral less than a quarter (m) «L- J 

seventy f 

somebody/anybody; some {jy 
someth ing/anything 

speech, word; thing (abstract); c^ I 

matter; affair (0 
to spend time, to pass time 

spoon; sycophant (colloquiai)(m) ^ 

to steal tf 7 V 

sugar (f) {£? 

sweet U^ 

to swim \,jZ 



temperament, health (f) 



uf 



w 



three-quarters &£ 

true (adj.); truth (m) 

231 



two and a half 



1>U* 



232 






Chapter 11 
11.1 The Interrogative U? 

The meaning of W depends upon its location in the sentence. When W appears before the 
noun tt is modifying, it can be translated as "what kind of." When Ur appears before the verb it 
can be translated as "how." Its oblique form £L is often used adverbially. 

What kind of girls are those? 

What kind of boys were those? 

?+. i/j* tfL,r 

How is your daughter? 

■? 
How wil 1 he meet you? 

Note that U: , when not being used adverbially, acts as a marked adjective and agrees in number 

and gender with the noun it modifies. 

11.1 Reading and Translation Drill 

<V &X &* \ -< 

?c^ uirtr i/4 

233 






\- 



".£- O" <s. 



if\0 'it 




11.2 The Interrogative ffi 

V" , "how much, how many," like Uc , acts like a marked adjective and agrees in gender and 
number with the noun it modifies. 

How many girls are in your class? 

How many patients were there in the hospital? 

How big is their house? 
t*' can also be used in an exclamatory manner. 

i+. in &J*&\ 

Their house is so big! 
11.2 Reading and Translation Drill 

*t£ *Hr btf tVfe tf ^*» i/i ^ -j 

234 



lot c^-s) ££ <-£ 

lig jj& if dfl * 

I*- Jfo 141 POa/j* 

■UZ *?*J '£■ ^ 

lf~'f&+%tj8£r{fi£dkr*£i ftt&j£stJ$ 

1J.3 Expressing "To Have" 

Urdu does not have the verb equivalent of the English "to have." instead, Urdu uses three 

different constructions to convey the corresponding meaning of the Engl ish "to have." These 

constructions depend on the nature of the object possessed. 

1 . Expressing human relationships, legal ownership, and parts of the body. 

In such a construction, the possessive adjectives or possessive postpositions {} < L- <0 are used 

with the logical subject in English- The appropriate form of the verb fc-tf (in present, past, or 

future tenses) agrees with the object being possessed. For example: 

I have two boys, 
(possessive adjective -- object of possession -- verb) 

235 



I have ten fingers. 

The poor boy has no one. 

That man had a house. 

■4* \fat \f\idfd* & 

Next year Hussein too will have a wife. 
1 1 .3 Reading and Translation Drill (1) 

-u? jk ^ <£ erf 

.^ j^t wii \5m 
-1L \jC t>jj> £. \J\ -f 



236 



2. Expressing possession of material, movable objects. 

In order to express possession of material, movable objects, the postposition \Ji £~ or "near' 
is used with nouns or pronouns representing the logical subject in English. The verb t^, in all 
its tenses, agrees with the object being possessed. Note that several pronouns adopt their 
possessive forms when used with (^/L Z^. For example \J\t£~ +(J~ = \J I tL— y£ 

That woman has a lot of money, 
(logical subject in English — \J"% <L object of possession — verb) 

Do you have these things? 

I only had two books. 

Tomorrow you will have sweets in the shop? 
11.3 Reading and Translation Drill (2) 

-*/ M / jfl L/t <-/£ <<^ & 

237 



-3- wlT'i/S „ ji £ cf- tf ui 
\<jt Jjjr c^ t/t ^_x Eft l^ ti/^' <£ fVi/ 

3. Expressing abstract possessions. 

As already discussed in Chapter 9, the postposition /is used with the subject in order to convey 

abstract possessions. 

I have a lot of work. 

He has fever. 

We were worried. 

They did not have any free time at all. 

On account of not sleeping, they are tired (lit. they have tiredness/fatigue). 






238 



Do you need this thing? (Do you have the necessity of this thing?) 
Note; &JIJ* isfeminine, hence the possessive particle preceding it will always be y. The 
expressionists &J3/ (J x, to have need of x. 

1 1 .3 Reading and Translation Drill (3) 

.f. j£- /i%f 6 erf 

-*_ fid /j> y* c>< -J* 

ft? |*l / V T 4jT 



239 



Translate the following sentences into Urdu: 

1 . I have three brothers and one sister. 

2. Do you (formal) have two eyes? 

3. Bill Gates has a lot of money. People say he is the richest man in the world. 

4. We will have a lot of free time. We should not spend it QtJy) in doing useless things. 

5. They have a lot of work, but they ought to go there. 

6. Nargis will also need \&js/*j to have her teeth examined. 

7. The patient doesn't have a fever but has a cough. 

8. Do you have a need for a lot of love in your life? 

9. I was very worried about these things. 

10- Excuse me, sir. Do you sell combs? I don't have one; I want to buy a good comb. 

11. The landlord in this village has a lot of land and money, but he does not help the poor. 

11.4 The Possessive Adjective l£' 
When the subject of the sentence is also the possessor of a noun in that sentence, then the 
declinable possessive adjective &' is used: 

I meet my (own) professor every day. 

She meets with her (own) daughter. 

240 






I ought to do my (own) work. 

Our boys will play football with their (own) friends. 
Note: l£' immediately precedes the possessed object and agrees in number and gender with the 
possessed object. l£' is also used to emphasize the possessor/owner of nouns. In such 
circumstances, (£' follows the possessive noun or adjective: 

This is his (veiy own) thing. 

The White House is not the president's (own) house, it is the house of the American people. 

11.4 Reading and Translation Drill 

-£-&?? M iff fcJ t> 



241 



-d?d? -H u*-Vfy Su< /erf 

11.5 The Reflexive Pronoun if 

if is a reflexive pronoun that refers back to the subject of the sentence in a manner similar to 
that of the English "self or "selves." 

\jJH C>> if JL 
I myself study. 

-U% 2- If Ufa >? ° 9 

They themselves go there. 
11.5 Reading and Translation Drill 

J2 \j f if jt rf # J 
f& <H tj 0\i if wf J/ 

.^ tlf if /cfi 
~£- t*> if fi/t Jt 
-<z_ & #% if w offi* 

'jfyii f *% *} &j 

J? Vfj£ Jt U ^j^? i/' <£ H *f & fOk 



242 



Translate the following sentences into English: 

1 . We will eat with our friends tomorrow. 

2. This is his (very own) idea. 

3. Madonna herself is singing tonight. 

4. Do you (informal) yourself study at Princeton? 

5. 1 used to go to India with my family every December. 

6. We do not cook meat in our house. 

7. Do you yourself know how to play the piano? 

8. Abid himself was helping Nilofer. 

9. Their life was so busy that they themselves could not rest. 

10. In his childhood, the old man had his (very own) hair and teeth. 

1 1. Please stop (prevent) your children from playing with the flowers in the garden, 

11.6 Noun +iih 
When the suffix iihfijb/t—h is attached to an oblique noun, it frequently signifies the doer, 
seller or user of that noun. In the case of place names, a construction with U *J indicates the 
resident of a place. Several of these expressions with this suffix have idiomatic meanings that are 
also listed here. 

Feminine English Masculine 

(Jlj tjv fruit seller i)h U? 

(jlj \$X vegetable seller lib (j jf 

Jlj Z->T shoe seller lib l-£ 

Jlj £_l~ tonga driver lib JLtT 






243 



6b V$ villager fUnJff 

6b J* wife, husband tikj* 

U'- J f9 one who does work, servant l)b f% 

6b 6-> a Delhi resident 0(* J^ 

-t| ^y <LU c^ ^ Uk 

Many fruit sellers live here. 



What does your wife do? 

The newspaper man used to come to our house every day. 
In some instances, the addition of the I/O suffix to a noun may result in an adjective: 

I like tea with milk. 
11.7 Adjective +l)'j 
The suffix vh can be added to adjectives in order to avoid ambiguity or to lay emphasis. In such 
an instance \)b, like the adjective to which it is attached, will agree with the noun it is 
modifying. 

j£* 6j 6^ Ji) « A 

Please give me that red hat. 
You would say this if you are pointing to the red hat as opposed to hats of other colors. 

11.8 Postposition or Ad verb + lib 
The addition of the lib suffix to an adverb or postposition transforms it into an adjective or a 






244 



noun. 



Does he stay in the upstairs room? 

. _^ J? & A \ » 

She is the girl who was/is outside. 

_^ c£ *& A if lib #f 

God (lit. The One Above) watches us all the time. 

-Z-tfujiV- 6b £-,<£. 

Please show me the sari that is underneath. 
11.6- 11.8 Reading and Translation Drill 



0) 



-ji &.«£ U> finite 

-Jn tvj <z- J— I) s>< l£ 
-Oi 2—* J&yi &?. J—h Jl/\ g* -f 

?c£ &-* j& Lj> tftfi a/ 
?/<tf Ljt 4/ LAi art 

1^. j% 6j\<> lib Ju * f*J >y 



245 



-<f- \j I (tot {$» db jJA si J? 
*Cf v lA a-/ Lb A ( Af 

-o fjfc* fu>£y &» a m » 

jj &j *s m lib jyj \^J> _a 
.£. 2Llf h} if'i /(*/< LJhM *-*> U^4 

11.9 Oblique Infinitive + Ub 

When the suffix lib is attached to the oblique infinitive it can be used in two different ways. In 
the first usage it indicates the performer of the action of the infinitive. 

-Cft 2^j U\> U* f| ifi 

The fruit sellers live over there. 

Where is your worker going? 
Note that lib will decline according to the number and gender of the performer of the action of 
the infinitive. In the second usage the oblique infinitive used with the lib suffix is used to 
denote immediate future or actions about to happen or take place. In such cases, the conjugated 
form of \,yt follows the Ub suffix. The suffix will agree in number and gender with the subject. 

-OK Ub Lb ttfPiJH \£ 
\ am about to go to India. 



246 









She is about to work. 
Note: In the last example above there is ambiguity in meaning. The sentence can be translated 
either as "She is about to work" or "She is a worker." 

If the oblique infinite + vh construction is part of a phrase, it is best translated in English as a 
relative clause, beginning with "who," "which," or "that" as may be appropriate: 

_£ Jj Lj» Uf£itik\£ fy.di* t/' 

In this airplane there were people who were going to Bangladesh. 

He thinks that the health of a person who eats meat is generally not good. 
11.9 Reading and Translation Drill 

-t| U <U % 6* \U -' 

r 
U Lji Lrf ( 'if 

\M ^ok fu*# Lj>2- J/ m a/. 

247 



Translate into Urdu: 

1 . He is a Delhi resident and he doesn't like Mumbai. He ought to go back. 

2. That fruit seller will not be able to sell shoes. 

3. I am about to buy that white hat. Do you like it? 

4. His family has money and they are about to go to Las Vegas. 

5. Many workers will not be able to go to work tomorrow because they have the flu. 

6. They are about to sell their beautiful house in Lahore. 

7. There is a lot more heat and sunshine in the big room that is upstairs. 

8. The woman who drives the red car used to live in that big red house. 

9. The train from New York will be arriving late. It is about to leave New York now. 

11.10 Cardinal Numbers 71-80 



M 


L\ 


J* 


LX 


P 


Lr 


H 


L? 


ft 


L& 


7* 


£\ 


(»^ 


L.L 


jft 


L/\ 


(if ti) tftf 


C ° 


if' 


A. 







248 



11.11 ^^(Conversation) 

-<p vir-v^i f\X^. ^ _^_ ^iJ ^^ [$/: &1 -&h ji v"0 

-lf% J -f- ft &f- & b'f U[ -if' 

i$tf i/l ^x & Jb££\ji J\si-j\fd3j\* i/t iff ^ 

_<£_ f ^} £■ Jit *L. 

-«£_ ft &4 ~ji <£**} A f -0* tPjf tlf *? if- 'U\ 'U\ 'US 

^Jf' Jk%\J?&- £\£ lit &s£-f{ti j!. ^Jlf :blj 

?^_ \j f(ttf &>>»> j/'V '/if- tv J«%* 

(.<_/? LX> JC? if} ^ &h) 

?t£ -£ >j iji/ '2C uk •'<?- *& WJty t * ©o 

jf\£d$ j» »muz J» \$ft ute <W -r >} J/ ^// 

1 



249 



_tf_ j¥ hi ±J JS >j> e^.Jl^f, -0\ 'U-J 1 

J~- / Jb' -i^f ±&r &Vl% j* i_& <d> %-' wT _u£l :fe 

-£# r/^f b> ifi /-' -<f- ^ J? j 6 JUl 

uJ&tJt */■ ifljt *&£& -^^ J%* ^X if* » J '•/& 

8k >*' Ol fa >? ^ <&» &» ^ J&£f*ft J"- -uz 

fj£k * ^JMi/t f -*- ^ **,JkP * Sit 

jlj/ j*/ 1 *&l tfuf j* LJil nJto 

iQg vfyftfi Ljff&i -<z- vS ~&- -w*u fii <j\ t&j 

j4 6#*£~£ *-* f& -<&4r(f & * <J% Sea 

11.12 Conversation Practice 

Doctor: How are you doing today? 

Anil: I have a stomach ache and severe cough. I also have a fever. Since yesterday I have 



diarrhea. 
Doctor: Please open your mouth. Does it hurt here? 
Anil: Yes, a lot! 

250 



Doctor: I think you have the flu. I'll give you medicine. Drink a lot of water and get (literally, 

take) rest. Drink very little m ilk for two or three days. It is not very good for your stomach. 

Anil: Do you have a daughter? 

Doctor: Yes, her name is Reena. Do you know her? 

Anil; Yes, she is in my class. Sometimes both of us study in the library. 

Doctor: You ought to come to our house sometime. I have two sons and you can play tennis 

with them. When will you be able to come? 
Anil: Thanks. Can I come to your house Friday evening? Are you busy at that time? 
Doctor: No, no. We arc free. Eat dinner with us. What would you like to eat? My wife is from 

Hyderabad. She cooks Hyderabadi food very well 
Anil: I like Indian food very much, but I don't eat meat. Also I don't like very hot food. 
Doctor; We also don't eat meat. We arc vegetarians. Don't worry. My wife only puts a little 

pepper in our food. So we'll meet you Friday evening. Get (literally, take) a lot of rest. 
Anil: Thank you and good-bye. We'll meet again. 

11.13 Songs 

I ?£> ^> 

I ?/*,)/? 

I /*k if Vf <0\ <U[ 

I & d U^iJl $ ? 

251 



-c^ak f y w — ue '(If 



*& iSj! *& &X "-;' 
dlf J/ CI? liX 

4 I*' w 



252 



^y. = excuse (m) 

b**J = to fade, to sink, to decline 

%j) = to break 

\>Ji% = to abandon, to give up 



\ji \f\fi 

!U !(? 

H^ft fjf jfjf fo£jPt4& % 

Glossary for Songs 

y >* enmity (f) 

($T = heart, soul, spirit; mind; intellect (m) 



C>% = victory (f) 

j\ = loss (f); also necklace (m) 



V = River Ganges (0 
K = River Jumna (f) 
f = union, confluence (m) 
KXs* = to tease, to torment 





11.14 Vocabulary 


to become well 




blood (m) 




cold (illness) (m) 
comb(f) 
to comb 


iff 


condition (f) 


&iy 


to cough 


0\X 


cough (f) 


tfV 


dangerous 


Jitf 



to have diarrhea 1 1 \£*S ) 

ear (m) U& 

id 

eighty tf ' 

examination (medical), 'i?'** 



investigation (m) 
to have something examined 

(medically) 
finger (0 
flu(m) 

to go back, return 
hair (m) 
help(f) 

to help 
to help x 



tl/^bS 



nose (f) 



0)J'J 

Ok 



land© C*P 

landlord (rn) JK {J&tAxgJ 
leg (m) ^ 

mouth, face (rn) ,z*lJ9 



Jt 



offspring, children (f) -fJM 

pain (m) J» 

patient (m/f) \j%/ I A$ 

254 



to pour, to place, to put 


m 


to be reduced 


tM f 


to reduce 


*ff 


rest (m) 


C A 


to rest 


\f(& 


self (reflexive); oneself 


4 


servant (m) 


fi 


sherbet (beverage) (m) 


<&>/ 


stomach (m) 


*m. 


to stop, to prevent 


fa 


teeth (m) 


ygfti 


thief{m) 


Jg, 


toilet/excrerneni/stool (m) 


Jto. 


town/city (m) 


/ 


until 


J! 


urine (m) 


V* 


useful, profitable 


./ 

V 


useless/unemployed 


4 


worried 


cfe< 



255 



Chapter 12 
12.1 Simple Past Tense 

The simple past tense indicates an action thai has been completed. 

1, I went home. 

2. I saw the movie. 

In order to form the simple past tense in Urdu, it is essential to know whether the verb is 
transitive or intransitive. Intransitive verbs are those that cannot have objects such as verbs of 
motion. Transitive verbs, on the other hand, have objects (for example, the verb "saw" in # 2 
above). In addition, there are a few verbs that are transitive in English but their Urdu 
counterparts are treated as intransitive. A notable instance is the verb ClJ "to bring." In the same 
vein, there are a few transitive verbs in Urdu whose English conterparts are intransitive. The 
chart below should make these distinctions clear. 

Common Intransitive Verbs 

to forget 

to bring 

to be afraid of/ fear x 

to fight with x 

to cry 

to smile 

to reach 

256 



V& 


to come 


l-T 


CJ 


to go 


• 


IVJ d_x 


to speak / talk to x 


tfi <^x 


^x 


to live 


I* 


%»j 


to live 


Ui 


t\P 


to get up 


tfi 


& 


to rise / to awake 


• 



to be constructed/ become 


ti 


to climb 


to bathe 


iV 


to meet x 


to dance 


fet 





fc*ȣ 



Intransitive when object is not expressed and transitive when the object is expressed; 

to lose KA 

to win 

to understand w*. 
Common Transitive Verbs 
to say tf to open i^>* 

to ask l^Cy to buy t-4-v 7. 



to do 

to see 

to eat 6W to wash fc/\> 



to drink 
to keep 
to read 
to write 



Hi 


to buy 


tf 


to sell 


bd 


to sing 


fcl/ 


to wash 


fc 


todiyx 


l^v 


to work 


t*> 


to clean 


b4 


to fix/repair 



¥ 



if ft 
t/J? 



Note: Urdu has a substantial number of verbs created by adding a "verbalizer" (usually £/ and 
t>? ) to an adjective or noun to create a verb. For example, the Urdu equivalent of the verb "to 
work" is created by adding the verb ts to the noun r*0 ; the verb "to clean" is similarly created 
by adding tJ to the adjective hjU. While constructions with is result in the creation of 
transitive verbs, those with tif produce intransitive verbs, for example, til i_iU "to be 



257 



clean." 



12.2 The Simple Past Tense of Intransitive Verbs 



To form the simple past tense of intransitive verbs, the past participle is used. The past 



participle is formed in the following way: 



Examples: 



verb stem + I (masculine singular subject) 
verb stem +■ ^(masculine plural subject) 
verb stem + y (feminine singular subject) 
verb stem +c£ (feminine plural subject) 

t>t "to dance" 
stem: &t 



Feminine Singular Masculine Singular 



Pronoun 



* 




J-- 


u> 




y 


t£t 




mt# 


Feminine Plural 


Masculine Plural 


Pronoun 


U&i 


2_C 


f 


jSt 


4_t 


? 


jtft 




^ 


Uft 


s~X 


03/m 



If the stem of the verb ends in f, or i, then the consonant y is inserted for the masculine singular 



past participle. 



258 



tlJ "to bring" 



tr - "to sleep" 



stem: 



stem; K 



•• 




Masculine Singular 


V* 


£_d 




Masculine Plural 


t-r 


& 




Feminine Singular 


& 


uf* 




Feminine Plural 


iif> 


If the stem of the verb ends in U 


then it is shortened in the masculine forms. No add 


added for the formation of the feminine past tense. 








Ix "to live" 








stem: y- 




b 






Masculine Singular 


& 






Masculine Plural 


J- 






Feminine Singular 


J? 






Feminine Plural 






12.1-12.2 Reading and Translation Drill 

-U c-> \J\> u~ 

-tiff /' l# im* 

t^4 t£*l ViS~1$? <\S 



_r 



259 



?& fcf A. ^T J> (Jylrt 

_^ a^ i/"^ / (/i kr 

4-* «_£" JU >j .J/- gi J& ijrf jft 
-CD* j£ *- C- vUL iJfc iTv/f 

tuft fc#»U<f v T ¥ 

- tJ ^^ JU >J eL <^M lib \Js/ r»J 
12.3 The Case of tie "To Go" 

An important intransitive verb, CU, has an irregular pattern of conjugation. 

Feminine Singular Masculine Singular 



SiA 


fu£ 


f} 






£^ 


y m 




Feminine Plural 


Masculine Plural 


off 


£ r r 
£» 



jr 



_r 



260 



12.3 Reading and Translation Drill 

-£ Jt ll yf\ \f\ L') « 

-//* £jc £&> ^ /; 

-^ c^> |J j^y ,&Zl Jl> _r 

j? u?u\> H &* f £■ *-& &* ^- d^ V f 1 
^JfjfkJi <=- jji J. j? [fH CM &k> 6m 

12.4 The Case of tit "To Be, To Happen, To Become" 

The verb t>? mean to be, to happen, or to become. The past participle forms of t.ri when it 
means "to be" are 1/ <&- '{J C U~ ■ The past participle forms of fc.K when it means "to 
become" or "to happen" are : 

Singular Plural 

Masculine >Jt i-^it 

Feminine (j-tf {£ K 

Study the examples below illustrating constructions meaning "I became happy," "You became 

261 



happy," and so on: 






Feminine 




Masculine 


-(|jtf Jp jt 




Jyt {// jt 


~6* J} 3 






m£* (/> ( 




-2-x J? f 


L — - W 




-2^x [}} *J\ 


0-* (// 5^/W 




Jrt \Jfut* 


-t/* l/> f* 






-</ if t/i f 




A • •• 






.*_* J> ^r 


/ 5 * 




-i—yiij? hi* 


Other examples of the use of CjK are: 






Jn (<4o\> 






Work took place there. 






J* W L% 




A spectacle happened here. 


12.4 Reading and Translation Drill 






J\ «c- u^ u! 




m/\^ 


(Jjj L/j/2 iSuef4/ u 




lU*'\»/e- 





-fr£ < j* t/1 *^» w»i j* 



262 



llfZ *S* J* & U 

-Ji jf if I J j? u 
Jig J? t/f J* Un 

*.£ / J- ja jf l/i v r 

9y -* w i 

-off <y u\> 6$ » 
?^y r erf Jfet, v 

_2-j> **s Air w^l£ /J- if V c% cA 



263 



iLiJ /»%, *Jf* Jj ^s tS .{/ 

-t^si my / iLSs L Jb k—\ ■^y'is t—fo 
Jit iu>/ y j^> (/I (}J \/ i3 Vji 

-i/* i/'>f y *S> l/i tfj/^ uj/ ,Ji, tTc/y 

JLtf if/arf n ftf 6fC- tT*JG J' 
J* lT> c^J $j/S m /</ c^" ^ jux 

JLx \j$ J} f^JU. Zl <& / X «4/J u fjg£ 

Jit j\f. &?. /\e J\> jt Jf 

*\£* A i£ X/\ Jjf u 4/ 

Ja M Hbji Mi 

Jm d<%s fyj f £> / 'j% -if 



r 



% 



264 



Translate into Urdu: 

1 . Having seen my friend, I became very happy. 

2. Did you and your brother become ill in India? 

3. Those girls became worried after seeing that thief. 

4. Did those bright students go to London? 

5 . What time did you (formal) wake up yesterday morning? 

6. Did that man get up from there? 

7. Those naughty boys climbed that mango tree. 

8. Did they take a bath in this house? 

9. I reached Mumbai this morning but my friends reached Mumbai last night 

10. What happened in Raja's house yesterday afternoon? 

11. I became very embarrassed in front of my family. 

12. I don't think he became upset yesterday. 

12.5 Relatives and Correlatives 

Relatives and correlatives are used to create clauses that frequently join two sentences which 
have a common noun, pronoun, adjective, or adverb. These clauses agree in number and gender 
with each other. The relative clause usually precedes the correlative clause but this order is quite 
flexible. 

265 



correlative 



relative 



Who is the man who is singing? 

t+ \j <f U) ^ ^/(„) 

relative correlative 
Who is that who is singing? 

--ps/Vyf (u^)-f-J-' ifVCuur) 

Your home is where your heart is. 
The following chart lists the common sets of interrogatives, relatives, and correlatives: 



Interrogative 


Correlative of 


Correlative of 


Relative 




Proximity 


Distance 




sf/tf 


£ 


W 


& 


oblique; \J l{J 


oblique; C^(/! 


oblique; C^'/t/' 


oblique: tf'l\J' 


who/what? 


this/these 


that/those 


who/that/which 


* 


• 


• 


t* 


when? 


now 


then 


when 


• 


• 


• 


• 


since/from when? 


from now 


since then 


from the time when 


♦ 


• 


• 


• 


until when? 


until now 


until then 


as long as 


*r 


UU 


o\> 


£& 


where? 


here 


there 


where 


M 


/M 


f)S 


A* 



266 



in which direction? 


in this direction 


in that direction 


in which direction 


(whither?) 


(hither) 


(tither) 


(whither) 


tf 


R 


tf 


\» 



how much/how many? this much/this many that much/that many as much/as many/the 



U 



U4 



«■ 



^ 



how, what kind of, in like this, in this manner like that, in that 



what manner? 



manner 



extent to which 

that which, of such 

kind 



12.5 Reading and Translation Drill 



J? \j J w>Uy» \fi w^ <$ \j Kj w ^>. 

-Q \j J Jjjs v *j> *JL <z-j y fi \*i 

J& \j j/u \Jfi >£- <$~J *' f- \M. 
-9 sjf&fj* fs\ <£. ^-j If ft />• 

-if 44 d$ at *~ U& & ** <H i if <=- 00 & 



j 



j 



_r 



_r 



267 



-&il u Jt jt jii /J J_% z J> 
-J? JJ J* u <jt 2^ tU >_J £ if- 
~U> iF &?> » 'Ul 2^ fyf ~< /u>3 \f' 
-+. J* ft M 'f- >^ blfc * 

-t^ ^_j \}f <CJ » /> <f_ /'jiyfbk 

jrft&j&P £i>" Jd «^_ ,/ b* *</»*> & 
-li* d$ Uk US \fi iff >u!$ 'lA *iJ US \fi if' 



-^<j?Ut 



268 



Translate into Urdu: 

1 . My house is in that direction in which you are going. 

2. He who is my friend is not your friend. 

3. The things that are pleasing to those girls are not pleasing to me. 

4. The receipts for these bags are right there where you are looking. 

5. In this country you cannot get the kind of carpets that you want. 

6. I will meet you there where no one comes or goes! 

7. Ever since Lata has come to America, she has become vegetarian. 

8. Until her beloved comes back home, she will cry for him day and night! 
Combine the following sentences using appropriate relatives and correlatives: 
Example:-*^- C^* \$/£ W "*-" $ J *% ^ S * becomes in combination: 

-<f- c^ \S/£ m *-£- &j &% \J\* 0$ F. 

Jl fc Ci> /h Jte j» *~ v« jV & jH ~ r 
.<-. j# m J a uy -Ul 2-x H £-M* -* 



269 



12.6 The Particles if' and if 1 

We have already encountered the emphatic particle O' which means "also" or "too." 

-(Jjt \j (f if' jt 
I too am going. 
When if is used in a negative sentence, it corresponds to the English "even." 

Jtot ji if jt I 

Even I will not go. 
iS must immediately follow the word it is meant to emphasize. 

The enclitic particle [J* is used to emphasize any element that precedes it. Used in this manner, 
it may often not be easily translatable in English: 

This .year (emphatic) I will go to Pakistan. 

This year / (emphatic/myself/alone) will go to Pakistan. 

This year t will go to Pakistan only (emphatic). 

_tf #% eM U^J^Wl I 

This year I will definitely go (emphatic) to Pakistan. 
Note that J* can sometimes correspond to the English "only." 

In this house, only you work. 
Q* can also come between the noun/pronoun and the postposition that follows: 



270 






h~" V 



This is your (emphatic) book. 



or 







This is 


jwwr (emphatic) book. 






When (j* is combined with certain pronouns, it has a special fori* 


1. 




/ 


as 




1* 


+ 


*5 


/ 


= 




J' 


•*- 


J 


j? 


= 







+ 


1* 


uf 


= 




tf 


+■ 


( 


uf 


= 







+ 


w 


\$i 


= 




tf 


■*- 


w 


ifl 


es 




J' 


■f 


t/I 


tfl 


ss 




tf 


+ 


Si 


ji\ 


* 




(J< 


4- 


Ui 


J*\ 


a 







+ 


*f 



As far as adverbs are concerned, when {f< is combined with them in a special form, they have a 

meaning different from the one they have when $ is written as a separate word: 

right here Ur only here {$ Q\& 

right there (Jt) only there if Ujfl 

right now 0' ' only now $ %^A 

right then O* only then i$ l *-J 



271 



12.6 Reading and Translation Drill 

-(/ if j $ (£» Uss 

-(? r-^ /tf ^r r * 

-t-s $■> *>> ciT-» (J-ti/' is? 
-4^ & *% if 00 * 

Translate into Urdu using (/< for emphasizing the italicized element in the sentence: 

1. Those people have no free time. 

2. You (informal) alone are my God. 

3. In the big house, there was a small child. 

4. /only was anxious/worried about the exam. 

5. Give your heart only to as, 

6. Sir, the carpet shop is right there. 

7. Only here can you buy such beautiful flowers. 



272 



12.7 The Interrogative Of 

The interrogative L^i acts as a marked adjective meaning "which one" and can precede both 
nominative and oblique nouns. The basic difference between {J J (including the oblique forms 
y and £}) and l^J isthatU*y is used to inquire about a particular thing amidst many things: 

if.*,)* u//v 

Which (out of al 1 these) fruit do you like? 

Which thing do you need? 
12.7 Reading and Translation Drill 

12.8 Repetition of Adjectives 

When non-interrogative adjectives are repeated, the repeated adjectives take on an intensified 
form: 

That nightingale used to sing very sweet songs. 



273 



This sentence could also be expressed as: 

Jit *£&*«#* 

Similarly: 

-u! U.Z ^ if\ J- J £ uif 

In their house, there are very good things, 
could be expressed as: 

The repetition of interrogative adjectives conveys a sense of variety: 

Where "all" will you go in Pakistan? 

Who "all" lives in their house? 
In order to repeat Of , the forms Of i*)Jj£f &ffl£ /{*)/ arc used instead of Of 

of. 

Which are (all the) girls you like? 
12.8 Reading and Translation Drill 

-ul 2L Ji 4j 4 1 «*< l£ &*" i/f J 

-UJ i£j\t \$% \Sk ut ijcsM 
-ut $£'$. L>i L-4 \£ oh erf 



274 



?t# 2£.> J) Jir'tL/dfuZ >j>j\ 

^ *r% W U3 i/fuSut Jjl uA r T 

Translate into Urdu using repeated adjectives or interrogatives: 

1 . What "all" will you buy for me in the market? 

2. He has very beautiful houses. 

3. That woman has two very small children. 

4. What need is there to buy very expensive clothes? 

5. Whom "all" will you meet with in Delhi? 

6. Where "all" will you go when you tour Pakistan? 

?ui Z-/l/-? df L-\rf'c-\ -J _•* -i 
tf. \> t j df jM d\> "Jt Z~i y^ Ufa - r 

? t£ *i U3 did"- &j£t /^f -■* 



275 



12.9 Cardinal Numbers 81-90 



[fU Ar 
tfljjg Ar 

if it a<5 

(ft£ A1 
tf£- A^ 
\S\jk AA 

i/iy as 

12.10 ^^ (Conversation) 
(y *Jl jl* ^^ <£/ ^ tf« ^ «50 'I/O) 

_tf_ J^f <=_(/(«_ ^U t^ (/ j\& W'l f(i -Jl 

?^_ itfr>£jv £ aft v r ,i/ r^Z/d/ 
if- i*j £^ a^< -a J>i* *^ y * *// 



276 



-•£. Uutf J\ £)), £l _c£ J) a^. sAf. jf* &1 \fe J< ;Jf 



jsj 



:&l 



■~\J J§ <=_- e)i jjf * _<£_ ij'j yi £)l%y 

Scf£/£j 'd ~ -/<?-» £ cfy/i t£/ UfV j>j£ \\J :ifs 



-4f. LV f ^ J^ U- <U cA :</> 

u& 3to 3^j ut efi ji *£ &j 1 jib \jj\, jmf&t ■&-> vO 

-if (j' Jj JUy: '^U H 

4 H-H iS-fa -&-2-l*£-£ Uf) *JJ& &Jc St- / 

?<c_ />" Jo -4m 



277 



-^ 



?<=.(>- £ i£> ytfjst jt & Mil* £ J Ju -J j 

dJ * -^ tt jf' o^. <l£ ^Lfc* j^fr M ^--^ _*vC- u_i? 

-tf .MB* 



\^ 



WSHg-jSjaf J# f? ,fyj _<p t^StfjJ fisr ^ -<4 o4 '-</ } 
jj( & (J^j <\S -U* X4 &?. A fryfi J* 2^y^' W'U^ =&0 

I 

^Uj( cT-^ r^: o\> -c- i* ijcy u^ /(& iS **/% a «u| :</0 

l&^^JA At* <:-% *s. £ ij&sM j: 01 cTJf flfef (?j -- 1/" ^ I 

?c£ ^j ^ s£-f*A ^c <&/- 'V : ^'^ 



278 



-w^U^jv y j\? :fMj if* 
-c# 2~J <L**j y c/ c3i yr y^ -<p hj^ c^< y ^ :&k 






Notes 

t^ytf : Humayun, Mughal Emperor, died 1556. 

vt* h--^*: Qutub Minar; victory tower in Delhi built in the 13th century by the ruler Qutub 

ad-Din Aibak 
£lv U \J&J^ : Nusrat Fateh All Khan, renowned qawwali perfomer; died 1997. 
?U)I QTjJI (*\& : Nizam ad-Din Auliya, famous Muslim mystic of Delhi; died 1325. 
3/ j£\\ Amir Khusraw, a Persian poet who lived in Delhi, popularly considered to be a 

pioneer poet in Hindi; disciple of Nizam ad-Din Auliya; died 1326. 
w^Jfc \j/a Mirza Ghalib, a prominent Persian and Urdu poet; died in Delhi in 1 869. 

12.11 Conversation Practice 
Anil; This is such a beautiful restaurant. "Who is the beautiful woman who is singing? 
Sonia: The woman who is singing is Anuradha. She is very famous. She and I used to study 

together in college. 
Renu: Really? To which college did you both go? 

279 



Sonia: We went to Amherst College. As long as I was in college, I used to listen to her every 

week. 
Renu: Did your parents live in the United States at that time? 
Anil: No, both our families used to live in India at that time. Only both of us were in this 

country. 
Renu: My family used to live in India five years ago, but now they also live here. 
Waiter: What would you people like to eat? 
Renu: The food here is very good, (use emphatic C?) 
Anil: What "all" do you like here? 

Renu: Their dosas are delicious. I also like their tanduri chicken. 
Sonia: I don't cat meat. I would like a dosa and a mango lassi. 
Anil: I would like a plate of tanduri chicken. 
Renu: I will get a dosa too. 
Sonia: After we eat, we ought to go to a movie. Yesterday I was about to go to the new 

M adhuri movie but I did not have a car. My brother was going to New York. 
Anil; Yes, I like Madhuri very much. Is the theater very far from here? 
Renu: No, no. The theater is very near. But there is always a long line in front of the theater. 

For this reason we ought to go before 9 o'clock. 

12.12 Songs 






280 



ji js c- jt £ _?. <j£i g .j\j>£ a- 

n $■' */ fan ut & 

d* $ J i( 0\>; X ^ 
U Lv l/fe ^ (r 

Glossary for Songs 
C^T* a/jv = forehead radiant as Venus {$= alley (f) 

C£ = beautiful (/ = flower bad (f) 

C/L/= sacrifice, offering Uif- / w&; = rejoicings, merriment (f) 

281 



*-^i ^~ coquetry, playfulness, flirting (f) 

CV x = elegance, smartness; curvature (m) 

t^ = to win, to conquer 

C/ = art, skill (m) 

CJl£ = world (m) 
• 
{jh = queen (f) 

*2*j= season (f) 

(3t£- > = intoxicating 

J&j = life (f) 

(•£ = to pass, elapse 



ii^*r = well, tank; place for drawing water (m) 

(l^, Zl) i^= without 

y = raw sugar, molasses (m) 

{$[ = tamarind (f) 

&* = sour, tart; harsh 

9>*J = promise (m) 

& = ripe; perfect; strong, firm; pure 

Mpj = thread (m) 

#= unripe, raw; rough; unstable; weak; brittle 



12.13 Vocabulary 
action/deed; mischief; d^ s 



movement; (f) 
airport (m) 
animal (m) 
answer (m) 
artist (m) 
ashamed, bashful, modest 

to be ashamed, bashful, etc. 
baggage, luggage, goods (m) 
besides, moreover, in addition to 
brave, courageous 



(If Jljf 



j 



£ 






282 



capable, able, skillful; 

Worthy 01 (with oblique infinitive) 

to cause or make listen, to tell; 

to narrate 
celebration (m) 



to flee, to run away from 



worship (m) 

historical 
homeland (m) 



J® 



^ 



to climb fc*£ 

cold (weather) (m or f) (m) ' ilf / (f) [$>/ 

to enjoy &r *J* 

fed up vl^Jj 



tfk 



fort(m) JcJJ 

grave, tomb (f) yT 

grave/tomb shrine of Sufi V'y* 

holy man (m) 

heavy \$M 

Hindu devotional hymn; C^ 






independence, freedom (f> O A/ ' 

invitation; feast, party (f) i&fir) 

mausoleum (m) 9j* 

283 



millionaire (m) 0„ J *s 

minaret (m) j\&* 

Mirabai — a 16th century (?) poetess 0^j£ 

famous for her devotional songs lo the 
Hindu deity Krishna 



mischievous 


4S 


mosque ( 1) 


V 


mountain, hill (m) 


H 


Mughal — dynasty that ruled India from 


J* 


the I6thtolhe 19th century 




nightingale (m/f) 


J* 


ninety 


tJi 



place (m) (plural) {iSAMOfW* 

Premchand -- prominent author of £%\"-C 
Urdu-Hindi narrative prose; died 1936 

prince (m) w/l 1/ 

qatvwali — spiritual-mysticaJ song recited \j>r 

by Muslim mystics (l) 

■ 

queen, empress (0 li'-'W 

queue/line (0 >lfa 

rain(f) \J A> 

to rain t^ \J i\ 



284 



to raise/nourish; maintain 



VI 



to protect 




receipt (0 


< J 


to return/come back 


tftjiti 


revered person/ respected elder 


Ja 


several; some; a few 


• 


skill, art, craft (m) 


*? 


to smile 


• 


Sufi - a Muslim mystic (m) 


i>** 


tree, plant (m) 


4» 


to wait; to stay 


1/ 


weight (m) 


ijjs 


to work out, to exercise 


t/JjJJ 



Chapter 13 
13.1 The Simple Past Tense of Transitive Verbs 

Subjects of transitive verbs in the simple past tense are marked with the particle J—. This 
particle puts the subject and any modifying adjective into the oblique case. 

>L~ with Pronouns as Subjects 
Although i— puts noun subjects into the oblique, in the case of pronouns only the third person 
pronouns go into the oblique. The third person plural pronoun "they" has a special oblique form 
with L- - \J*f\ or (Jj^J instead of the usual fcjj or (*tf, 
I saw U£-> <i- ifc 

You (least formal) saw \A> i— V 

You (informal) saw wO ^— ( 

You (formal) saw W- > ^— *~* ' 

He/she/itsaw U£-> -Li/' 

We saw l& <L (^ 

You (informal) saw W-> ^-f 

You (formal) saw Ut J <i- w ' 

TTieysaw u£> L-U** 

Note: the oblique forms of the interrogative c// "who" before <L are U" (singular) and 
(J^fplural). 



286 



Verb Agreement for Transitive Verbs 

* 
The particle ^~,used to mark the subject of a transitive verb in the past tense, cuts off 

agreement between the subject and verb. Instead the verb agrees in number and gender with the 

object, if it is explicitly mentioned. For example: 

I saw the book- 
In the above sentence the past participle of the verb is in the feminine singular form because its 
object, "book,'' is feminine singular. In this tense the gender of the subject is irrelevant for 
agreement for transitive verbs. Similarly, in the sentence below, the verb participle is in the 
masculine plural form in agreement with the object "shoes." 

I saw your shoes. 
In case the object is not explicitly mentioned or is indeterminate, the participle uses the 
masculine singular form as its default form. 

I saw. 

In case the object is marked by / (as, for example, is mandatory for direct animate or specific 
inanimate objects), then the verb participle also remains in the masculine singular as the particle 
/ cuts off agreement between object and verb. 

I saw the boys. 

287 



I saw the book. 
In both sentences above, the verb agrees with neither the subject nor the object because of the 
particles <L~ and Jr which mark each of them respectively. As a consequence, the verb adopts 

the default form - masculine singular. 

13.2 The Case of W <t;J <ts 
Three of the most commonly used transitive verbs have irregular past participles: Us *\£ 5*\J 

Masculine Singular V 'Lj *U 

Masculine Plural iL <£_J <£L/ iL <£~> <2L 
Feminine Singular \J '(J^ «U 

Feminine Plural \J~ 't/-» <\J+* 

Examples: 

I worked. 
(The verb agrees with object f*!?, masculine singular.) 

He took the things. 
(The verb agrees with object c£/2j feminine plural.) 

JL4->)z~> <-)(<£. L J* ^_x 

My father gave me clothes. 

(The verb agrees with object *i_- J% , masculine plural.) 

13.3 Negating the Simple Past Tense 

In order to negate the simple past tense, \j% is placed right before the verb. 

288 



.£ J o\> f 

We did not go there. 

I did not see those girls. 
Placing \J3 after the past participle results in an emphatic negation: 

He did not eat the food at all. 



_r 



13.1-133 Reading and Translation Drill 

« » *• •• *^ 

- ~ 

-tt*f U£lT£J- U*f> erf 
*'^f> c-tfz-il- u Ar^ erf *£ - r 



W«6 /# i/l 1- pr^> ^jr ell 4/ 

-t^ l*£* AfctS erf «L &fc /c£j c£g ^ ^&'-> 1- cr" 

-dj U3 & ** *- t£ iSM Sj% /A L. ^ J i/l 

<id$ t& A L- W .6 

■*$ Si/* <-*/■& J- # J-/ 

JSd, 

Translate the following sentences into Urdu. Pay special attention to transitive and intransitive 
verbs. 

1 . Yesterday, my friend and I came from school at 4:00 pm. 

2. Did you dance with your friend last Saturday? 

3. Having seen the ghost, all the boys were frightened. 

4. He went home with his brother. 

290 



5. When did you wake up this morning? 

6. In my opinion, you did not do a lot of work. 

7. Did thai little boy smile? Poor fellow, he was very sick yesterday. He had a high fever. 

8. At what time did they reach Islamabad? 

9. I don't know about them but I reached Islamabad at 3:30 pm. 

10. Did you (least formal) understand? 

1 1. With whom did she dance? I don't know; there was a big crowd at the party. 

12. I washed the clothes but I did not dry them. 

13. Did you (informal) drink tea? No, I don't like tea. 

14. They asked me a question but I did not reply (i.e., give an answer). 

15. What "all" did you write in the letter? 

16. London is very expensive. I bought only two things. 

1 7. Where did the president of America give his speech last night? On T. V.? 

18. His friend gave him a lot of things for his birthday. 

19. Did they fix (iJ \*£f ) your telephone? 

20. We cleaned our house because my brother is coming home tonight. 

Change the tenses in the following sentences into the simple past tense, inserting *i~ when 
necessary, and then translate them into English. For example; <^lf l^ \J r* "We will go to 
the movies tomorrow" will become £L L£" (J 3 /* "We went to the movies yesterday." 



££1 J\s £ gut %J f jt 



291 



?f> &u <J> if v f 4/ _^ 

13.4 The Present Perfect Tense 

The simple past tense is used to denote past actions that are completed. If these completed 
actions are connected to or have bearing upon the present, then the present perfect tense is used. 
Simple Past Tense: 

He came from India. 
(Action completed in the past) 
Present Perfect Tense: 



OS 



He has come from India. 
(Action completed but still relevant to the present) 
In order to form the present perfect tense* the past participle of the verb is followed by the 
appropriate present tense of the verb Ctf that agrees with the subject of the verb (in case of 

292 



intransitive verbs) or the object of the verb (in case of transitive verbs). 








Masculine 


Feminine 


I have come 


Uxtf Ut 


a* i$T \A 


You (least formal) have come 




c-6H 


You (informal) have come 


jf SJfj* 


*&? 


You (formal) have come 


jt £_T >Ji 


ttfjfyf 


He/She/It has come 




*-&» 


We have come 


iSi-lp 


if i-1 fH if & f 


You (informal) have come 


xZjf 


*&!? 


You (formal) have come 


UiL.1^1 

•♦ 7 


J! i V 


They have come 


\&SJS* 


ul &» 



Note: for the feminine plural, the feminine past participle is not nasalized, e.g., if! 0' l£ Js 
Examples: 

Intransitive Present Perfect Tense (verb agreeing with the subject) 

All has gone out. 

-l£ f A & j J > l 4r 

Sheila and Reshma have gone out. 
Transitive Present Perfect Tense (verb agreeing with the object) 

Raj has bought books from (lie shop, 
(verb agreeing with feminine object wl7 ) 

293 



«£_ b m»i '<L £ &. AMj L. if} 

Nargis has given Reshma milk to drink. 

(verb agreeing with masculine object a>)SS) 

13.4 Reading and Translation Drill 

?^ cT> Jil tM|i L. ~i <if 
f^. \JL> fh fa* {jxti L. y a/ 

-f. i/j^ >• gi % J'* i- i* 



294 



-c- £// 43 ^->~ Jil .L^i .$&£ ctoA /<=- i-ufi 

13.S The Past Perfect Tense 

As in English, the past perfect tense emphasizes actions completed at a given point in time in the 

past. 

-I? tf <f& 
Ali loo had come. 

Raj had eaten the sweets. 
As in the present perfect tense, the past perfect tense is formed with the past participle of the 
verb. However, instead of using the present tense of the verb fctf as an auxiliary, this 
construction uses the past tense auxiliary form of tyi namely, U, and its variants. Again, the 
participle and its auxiliary have to agree with the subject of the intransitive verb or the object of 
the transitive verb: 

Hit and Ranjha had lived in this village. 

j$ u/y r jCi l. rftj j>\ # 

Hir and Ranjha had eaten a mango. 



295 



13.5 Reading and Translation Drill 

J? y* \f bt L. \J\$ *$ J 
•AS &* jf O^jI L- ^c/j>\ 

si? \p* l/% ^ L. eA &4 <$/ 

-if fe uwtf u i- J-Xj dk Ut Jtf- ^x ^ 

?/ & ju- ^ i. ^r ,/? .1/ 

-</ Jfe u^ JU* iA if 2- o" -u^ J. 

j? tj (4M?£> i/jt <a *yf *■*&■ *P wi -a? & 

■aj \$*>\{£ ^J^C *H*iUiJl e- fjt-d£ t/% 

JB \p% y .Jfc iSil A\4L ujZ of 



296 



13.6 Cardinal Numbers 91-100 



±-¥i 


.si 


U\ 


_sr 


A^JiZ- 


Ar 


t-'flj*. 


M 


<-4e 


M 


*-M 


-Si 


U& 


.sz. 


<-.}& 


_S\ 



y _ i** 

13.7 ^^(Conversation) 

(o£ Jyi i/tJj l^-/ ^' if > *$« <6>k 't/ # 

_L/? ^_ll 1_U (/ V T ^ _^U (^ 2^:1)0 if 3/ fu 

f _(^ <Lb \Ji/ fij) V ^ t** ^ ^ ^ *^ ^ ^ J :£/0 

tf/j* - ^ i^i J> /(« -c| <^ 1 1/> fcfc ^ 

I -if** ^ 



297 



If >" JK ^ A jit fy/1 \$M( -ox J? l£? j -l^ ;c/0 

i? ft* if j j>\ t<* \$ij £&> .ijf {si> J'l ^ Oif- dr* 

-&\r 0*» f -<r- >■& 'W ?# tJ '<L L L.s Jj f -\f -f) 

(*/ tf^ Bfc '->' iff) 
Jtofy k. yj \S^/>\ i£-c- # e4 ft b' iuy yfl* lT^' 

\J\> J>l <z- jf ^»\* ijl <£ ^> tjti -<$-<** ^ -^U ^ :U'i tT= 
tf-yy* tU jJ5 Ju </-i£ 2^> ./tf //£ » b* c/L^ **-" 

I 

« -£> / v *>k f * £ \A -<f- &»/* tJ*y# W '-f } 



298 



tv cl. cii -^ tu y ats uu& 'V -<p (^ £ -<4 <u\ -ifs 

!^_ Z fcf 1* : 6'v 

41 -/if// ^Or l^ £ tf->'-> r i- V J" ^ f**' 
UU i- l/J&^l j*C\$JL 2^j &>l if UkC U* i-U 

?J», j? ^uk J^ Y r .^ ^iy><^ if ^r :d., ^ 

_ Jk <**• ^-U ** M £ \f\ -Jzj JeL-t>\M.f '&■> 

^y^ y &T w->l- &*fj& &v r uk 4r « 1^ - 1 * 1 :J,, '^ r 
fig t-j) udf d/ it' ~ r '^V/ *** 



299 



Jm ff ^ ft cs- J> Jo ^ $j *;)&?: j&j & 

J* 6» j*\ t$j*\Hj /ji a j? if-<z~ tu jib tSJg 

13.8 Conversation Practice 



■j> 



Mother; 

Anil: 

Mother: 

Anil: 

Mother; 



Anil: 
Mother: 



Anil: 
Mother; 



Anil! You are watching a lot of TV. Did you do your work? 
Yes, mummy. I did my work, washed the clothes, and organized my room. 
Did you eat the delicious samosas that I made? 

Mummy! I am not hungry. I want to watch TV. This is my favorite show. 
No. First eat these samosas and then drink this milk. It has bournvita 
(chocolate) in it. 

I don't like milk. You know that. I ate two oranges and an apple. 
Milk is good for your health. Look - your brother drinks five glasses of milk 
every morning and all the girls like him. Sunita Auntie told me yesterday that 
your brother is the most handsome guy in school. 
Really! I did not know that. I will now drink six glasses. 
Just drink one glass right now otherwise the cow will not be very happy. 

13.9 Songs 

6i if of' ,jy f 41 &/ ^ 

Ay % J j ^ £1 lUl. 



300 



*~ JA J Jl J> <-jS 4 

A d£ &1 o* & J"-J^ 



U"= little, tiny, young 
\$J= fairy (f) 

•a 

*/" chariot (m) 

Af"/ x = riding on 

{J I = courtyard of a house (m) 



? Jj ^ M u//i «=- % 
J^£A ^ >*u ift«f jtJ\ft}jt As, 

U&f ty ff *- U&* UraX'j 

Glossary for Songs 

j\/ 1 = promise; agreement; acceptance (m) 
2* J = road, path (m) 

0y* = go a *> destination (f) 
\ss~S= love; happiness, joy (f) 

tlj = path, road (0 



301 



\>f \\Jf - to blossom, to flower &£ = friend, lover (m) 

tb* J = to hum, to sing softly \^& = to shine, glow, glimmer 

*/* (> = to be content, to be satisfied is J = direction (f) 



13.10 Vocabula 


T 


bad, evil, wicked 


u 


to be affronted, to feel insulted 


tolj 


beautiful 


uf 


brain, mind, intellect (m) 


Im 


to cause to be buiiL, constructed 


Oit 


to have X built 


ft* /x 


to cause to laugh 


** 


clever, cunning, sly 




court (f) 


y^ijf 


criminal (m) 


(/■ 


crowd (f) 


* 


cupboard, cabinet (f) 


iSaM 


to dry 


L-U^ 


facts, information (f) 


^1$** 


to fight x 


tf C-x 


to forget 


&** 


ghost (m) 


■£,& 


government (f) 


! a*^* *k 



302 



to govern 



to increase, to enlarge, to extend 



(intransitive) 



to cause to increase, enlarge 



(transitive; causative) 
interest (interesting) (0 



joke, wit; taste (m) 



journey (m) 



to make a journey, to travel 
juice, nectar (m) 
late, a long while; a long period 



of time, interval; lateness (f) 



to delay, to be a long time 



to come late 



lawyer, agent (m/f) 



to live; to be alive 



to lose (a battle, contest, game) 



mail© 



moon (m) 

moonlight (f) 

Muslim ritual prayers (t) 



to recite namaz 



iff* 

t/> 

J* 

v 



V 



J 



b»> JU 



303 



? 



oath(f) 

to swear by x ^\J Jr X 
to open 

otherwise ^„ 

poetry; a couplet, a verse (m) f 



to play the role of x 


bJx 


prison, jail (m) 




to recognize; to know; to 


*V 


perceive; to discern 




to repeat, to double, to fold 


tlyj 


sign, memento, souvenir (m/f) 


* 

(f) &>l /(m)tli*; 


special 


i/a 


speech, recital, statement (0 


.<? 


to give a speech 


tS'J 


splendid, stately, grand 


JJ& 


theft (f) 


d^ 


umbrella; canopy (f) 


(SX 


village (m) 


utf 


waiting, expectation (m) 


Mi 


to wail for x 


t/M-i f x 


wonderful; surprising; strange 


*4 


zoo (m) 


Ail 



304 



Chapter 14 
14.1 W Constructions 

t* is an intransitive verb which has a wide variety of meanings, depending on Ihe context in 
which it is being used. The range of its root meanings include "to be connected to," "to be 
attached to," "to be fastened with or hung to," "to stick or adhere to." 

His picture is hanging (has been hung) on the wall. 

How many stamps for (literally, are attached to) a letter for India? 
In addition to the above examples, there are many idiomatic expressions and constructions with 
t*, some of which are introduced below. 

(A) W in Constructions wiih f 
l* can be used to convey feelings, sensations (hunger, thirst, fear), and perceptions (to seem, to 
appear). It is also employed in constructions involving objects that strike or hit the body (bullets, 
arrows, wounds). In these constructions, the logical subject in English is marked by / and the 
verb agrees gramatically with the feelings, sensations, or objects. 

Jj* £ 4 it Car 

I felt hungry at five o'clock this morning. 

?tf \h & f( if 

Did AH seem nice to you? 



305 



It seems to Raj that Nargis is displeased for some reason. 

After drinking tea I will feel better. 

The criminal was struck by the bullet. 
tO can also mean "to require," "to take (time)," "to cost" in constructions where the logical 
subject (in English) is marked by /and the verb agrees in number and gender with the object: 

I came home late because it took me two hours in the Immigration office. 

It will cost a lot of money to eat in that restaurant. 

Mow many hours will it take to reach Islamabad from here? 
(B) Oblique Infinitive* t-0 
When t-V follows an oblique infinitive, it conveys the sense of the commencement or beginning 
of the action associated with the verbal infinitive. In this construction, the verb of action always 
remains as the oblique infinitive and the verb t** agrees in number and gender with the subject. 
Although the "oblique infinitive + fc* construction" occurs in all tenses, except for the present 
and past continuous ones, it is common to find it used in the past tense. 

Raj began to work in the same hospital. 



306 



The children began to cry from (on account ot) fear. 

We will begin to work there tomorrow. 

Every day that woman begins to cook after coming home from the office* 
14.1 Reading and Translation Drill 



307 



J^ £ *4f*Ao*s£if\ /y j# Ju^ ^ 

Translate into idiomatic Urdu: 

1 . We are (feeling) very hungry. We have to eat now. 

2. What all seemed beautiful to you in Agra? 

3. All my friends began to go home. 

4. How long (lit. how much time) does it take to go by car from Boston to "New York? 

5. The girl began to laugh a lot after she heard the joke. 

6. The rich lady asked the washerman Kl^/'jJ how many days it would take to wash all 
the clothes. 

7. Excuse me, sir, can you tell mc how much a ticket to Benares would cost? 
!. The boy was wounded in the head, (wound (f) = wi**j£; to be wounded = t-vJ^j£), 

9. It seems to me that in India mangoes are cheaper than apples. 

10. I am not feeling well. I want to go home and sleep. 

14.2 Verb Stem+ tf Construction 
Wf "to finish" is an intransitive verb which is never used by itself. Like the verb fc£ "to be able 
to, can," it must always be preceded by the stem of another verb. In such constructions, fc-lf 
indicates the completion of the action denoted by the verbal stem which precedes it (i.e., finish 
doing something). Like the "oblique mfinitive+ fcO" construction, fe$ is found in all tenses. 



S 



308 



except the present continuous and past continuous. Since it is primarily a completive auxiliary, it 
occurs most frequently in past tense constructions. Translations of "verb stem +fe§" construction 
often incorporate the word "already" to indicate the sense of completion. 

Raj had already read (finished reading) this book. 

That boy has already drunk (finished drinking) his milk. 
Jt$f Jf far £ fO/ A U* 

Our servaat will finish the house work by three o'clock. 
14.2 Reading and Translation Drill 



309 



Translate into Urdu: 

1 . I had already finished eating when he came to my house. 

2. The mother asked her son, "Have you already read th is book?" 

3. The student had already written his essay and given it to his professor. 

4. Have you already seen a movie in which Shahrukh Khan is an actor? 

5. When he had already left, then I remembered his name! 

6. When the teacher reached the school, the students had already gone home. 

7. When Shahrukh Khan had already left my shop, I recognized him. 

8. The naughty boy had a Iready climbed up the tree. 

9. When Nargis and Raj arrived at the zoo, it was already closed (to be closed= ft# A). 

10. When the doctor examined me, the fever had already come down (use ts\ or 

14.3 The Oblique Infinitive + ^ ) Construction 
The oblique infinitive of a verb in combination with the verb t^J is used to express the idea of 
allowing or permitting someone to do something as well as giving permission. The infinitive 
always appears in its inflected form while the verb !<;; agrees in number and gender with the 
subject 

Let the sick child sleep! 

My father will allow me to buy a car. 
The oblique infinitive + (g ) construction is considered to be transitive. Therefore, in the simple 

310 



past tense, the subject of this construction is marked with i— with the verb ^c ) agreeing with 
the object 

-tfi ^> \J *Jff& L-utf 

They did not let the girl read the book. 

(verb agreeing with object "book") 

143 Reading and Translation Drill 

f lJ* 2^; ^ Jl# jCf JWl <*4V 

_c^ ^j i£ i^i -v /^ *-*i-df 

.4- j L.5J A ; u ij 

Jg&JlA [f'/l\ J?'*- $>/ 4<-&> (wretched)^ (W\ 
.^ fej Z-J ^U^ /Uf i-rf «Uf V' ^V ^ 



311 



Translate into Urdu: 

1 . Wc wil 1 not ai low our children to play outside in this cold. They can play inside the 
house with their toys. 

2. When I go to Dubai, my friend lets me stay in his house. It is a splendid house with a 
pretty garden. 

3 . I have heard that India is a beautifu I country. Let your daughter go to India. 

4. His father does not allow him to stay outside after 1 1pm. 

5. Did you let the traveller see those photographs? 

14.4 Compound Verbs 
(A) Verb Stem + Aspect Indicators: &t> <b*$ 'fc# 'tl^ <& <td 
A compound verb combines the stem or root of a principal verb with the conjugated form of an 
auxiliary verb. Frequently, the auxiliaiy verb loses its original lexical meaning, serving instead as 
an aspect indicator that connotes a nuance or aspect of the action of the main verb . For instance, 
an aspect indicator verb may indicate the intensity with which an act was performed, its 
suddeness or that it was done foolishly. There are only a handful of verbs that can serve as aspect 
indicators; some common aspect indicator verbs and the nuances with which they are associated 
are listed below. It is necessary to keep in mind the following points concerning an auxiliary 
verb serving as an aspect indicator: 

a) The aspect indicator verb, which acts in an auxiliary mode, loses its original meaning. For 
example, the verb W "to take" when used as an aspect indicator no longer means "to take." 
Instead, it indicates that the action of the principal verb has taken place for the subject's benefit 

312 






or is in some manner directed toward the subject. 

b) Only the aspect indicator verb inflects; the stem of the main verb remains unchanged. As 
auxiliary verbs, aspect indicators can be in any tense, except the continuous. 

c) In the past tense, aspect indicator constructions are treated as transitive (i.e., subject will be 
marked by i— ) only if both the aspect indicator verb and the main verb are transitive. 

d) Since there are no equivalents of aspect indicators in English, accurate translations are often 
difficult without some elaboration. 

Common Aspect Indicators 

1. Cj*, "to take": When Cz is used as an auxiliary verb with the stem of another verb, it 
conveys the meaning that the action has taken place for the subject's benefit or is in some manner 
directed toward the subject: 

He read this book (for his own benefit). 

The patient will drink the medicine (for himself)- 

2. (<:->, "to give": & as an auxiliary verb with the stem of another verb conveys the 
meaning that the action has been done for the benefit of someone other than the subject or 
directed away from the subject: 

-t/j *>> u^iT \ L~ jt 

I read this book (for someone else). 

— ? 
Rich people should give away their extra money to the poor. 

313 



3. Z\ff, "to go": CU may denote several aspects including the total completion of an action, 

the transition from one state to another, or an action that is taking place as a process: 

That man fell asleep. 

Will you reach there by tomorrow? 

-£ 1/ j_u f £? Lbjst 

The boys from the village ate up the spicy biryani. 

4. t^, "to fall"; This denotes a sudden or violent change of affairs or a sudden downward 
motion. 

That boy fell down from the tree. 

On hearing his talk, I burst out laughing. 

5. O?, "to sit": This is similar to \j since it also denotes sudden action, fcap further 
implies that the reasons for the action are foolish or senseless. 

He lost his books. 

-fit j J> 64 

The young girl cried (without any good reason). 

6. fOj "to pour, to throw down": Also indicates a violent action and further implies that 
the action has been completed. 

314 



Did you throw away that book? 
(B) Verb Stem + tl Construction 

Not -all auxiliaiy verbs in compound verbal formations function as aspect indicators. For 
instance, the verbs fc^ - * and t^ are considered grammatically to be modals indicating, 
respectively, ability and completion. The verb tl as an auxiliary verb also functions as a modal. 
It is used to underscore physical ability or capacity to perform a particular action to its 
completion. Stem + tL constructions are best translated as "to manage to..." or "get a chance 

to..." They commonly occur in the negative. Jn the past tense, the subject of this construction is 

* 
not marked by ^— . 

We weren't able (could not manage) to sing this song. 

On account of love. Raj cannot (manage to) sleep. 

I regret that I could not manage to tel I this truth in a timely manner. 
Unlike the verbs fe£ and t£ the verb tl can be used in a non-modal context, that is, on its 
own, in which case it means "to find" or "to get." In this situation, it functions as regular 
transitive verb, with the subject being marked with J— in the past tense. 

?jLlT> if ^ft Jl <L ^ 

What happiness did you get from this work? 



315 



14.4 Reading and Translation Drill 

?jf "4r % Jiff Af 

-ty & Ut? Jf* *4f *. A L J Jiijt _r 

4£ /c j^j cT'j (J" 7 8 ^ 






316 



lip /&J ^J?lg 

-\y. a / o>}^ <-**• d> J- H &* dJ J\ « 

-lllj A f jJbyf ^ L-j% j'\ 

Translate the following into Urdu using appropriate aspect indicators: 

1 . We have cleaned the house (for our own benefit). 

2. Have you written the lelter (for someone else)? 

3. We are not hungry. Please eat these sweets (for your own benefit). 

4. All his friends died (abruptly). 

5. He lost all his best toys (foolishly). 

6. Look (for yourself)- 1 have nothing in my hands. 

7. Will you be able to take all your toys in this small box? 

8. The traveller came home and fell asleep. 

9. Nargis ought to have her blood tested (to get X tested a B/ <(^ &X). 

10. The cunning thief stole all the traveller's money. 

11. I understood what he had to say (use &\ (J l/') (completely). 

12. Because of a bad cough, he could not (manage to) eat his food (use CI). 

13. He is so busy that he will not get a chance (use I'l) to go to the hospital to see his 
mother. 



317 



1 4.5 Introduction to (he Subjunctive 

The subjunctive form of a verb is commonly used in situations expressing uncertainty, 
possibility, desire, or wish. In addition, it is used in a variety of other circumstances, some of 
which are described below. Subjunctives are formed in a manner similar to that of the future 
tense except the suffix (j <L- t% of the future is dropped. 

PtoWl Singular 

ft 

Unlike other tenses, the subjunctive form of the verb distinguishes number (singular and plural) 
but not gender. For the negative, the subjunctive uses the particle £ usually placed before the 
verb. 

jj£ g J tl/w -±l> 
Perhaps he is not able to cook food. 
Common Uses for the Subjunctive 

I . Asking Permission (with first person) 

May [should, shall] I see? 
May [should, shall] we go? 



318 



May [should, shall] I cut the vegetables? 
2. Suggestions/Indirect Commands/Reporting of Commands/Polite Imperative 



Please come to our house. 



-ufVei/jf.-* 



V 



Please eat some food. 

Let's go to the market 

Tell father that he should not eat too many sweets. 



3. Desire/Wish 



-yij testis \Ja y\y( 

May you live for 125 years (A common blessing that the elderly in South Asia give). 

May God grant you (give you) success! 

May you remain happy, my daughter! 
4. With specific adverbs and phrases denoting desirability, contingency, suitability, doubt or 
possibility: 
-^1? - Perhaps 

319 



Perhaps they may come here, 
t/o - // oniy/would that... 

If only we are able to hear Ravi Shankar. 
Jv - so that.... 

~o£ £> /e* &k» rf A #% (f Jt 

I'll go to Mumbai so that I can see Salman Khan. 
CO ^/'i- May God will that... 

-uff ukc \f» (J) 4-Jvt 

May God will that he may come here tomorrow. 
-£a/ J> \$M (J) ^Jt \jZ 
May God not will that our daughter cry. 
Z*l? J> Up -God forbid (may God not will that).... 

-tf J* / \j\ &\} J is 
May God forbid that something happen to you. 
J ^- *-""& '- // is appropriate that.... 

•J& OV -T (J) *_ ^s\y 
It is appropriate that you sit here. 
J yz £ lJ\- let it not be that..,, 

-tJg It) fcvf tf / # a U !>£ 
Look, let it not be that this young boy falls down. 



320 



J &L\ff J x - it is necessary Jbr x to.... 

It is necessary thai I read this book today. 
J C~ vh[ B x - it isx's intention that.... 

It is my intention that T read that book by tomorrow. 
S «£- C/ ' '' is possible thai... 

It is possible that we [may] dance. 
S U*1 l^l^ \jt -i want that.... 

I want the elder boy to become a great athlete. 
1 4.5 Reading and Translation Drill 

?uX /^ f jt.\f J 

321 



-of £> / uy\Sdi Jb \f 'u£ J»t v? \A I 

-2_lf jf >fc. w (J) rxAs \A -A 



322 



Translate the following into Urdu using subjunctives wherever appropriate: 

1. May we see that? 

2. Perhaps we may see Michael Jordan. All the famous people have come here. 

3. If only we are able to study Urdu in India! 

4. I would like to go to India so that I can work in the fields with the farmers. 

5. May God will that you can come tomorrow. 

6. It is possible that we may meet that famous artist tomorrow. 

7. This seat is empty. Please sit here ( l> J^^ )- 

8. Tell our driver that he should not wait for us. 

9. The guests are hungry. Shall we eat? 

10. It is their in tention that from today they wi 11 not drink alcohol. 

1 1 . If only all the people of this village were millionaires! 

14.6 i^(Conversatioa) 

(^ 4L.J l#- K/T <-, (jj) 






Phjf$ -Us ifs (£&-» us -* $j $1 ^> a f '4>* 

e*£ &lS<A) f)\ /jt ut &? JJ>* ^ a*-> if -S$ <£** \Hj j* (JiJ ■■&; 



J 



J 



.& ti w <s+ & ~& 1% X> Jt*@l~ij£f -U? '®>j 
-Qi/ftf \Jl 0&&1 ut ty&sjk \fjL J '«£_ wU 'x :$« 

-U& *% J? 

j/x J?[ J"\ £> ti _4\ § J- s> &f f- <o\ <o\ & 

{2iX> £ f bt {/} Jti \Hj <Jj <6>j «&tO 

?Ut Z^j *lj £ W»»H l% '/-f- i&M'+#*f if \ ■&-> 

-Jt J) £ (jljC *k £ uk 
jTi v <c-tu U^ J J »>'J 6^4 Uk ^Ji -tf/yCi (?-**. j sf. -lis 

M vtJ $$& fa tTcrf j* Uty & &h <f 4 Uk -f- •/* 

Jfci V M* U*f -t4 *l| =c/0 
/ijl£ t& >M £Ur / £ \f M -0* tr/c-i/sui <2&bf 



324 



r 



1$ ^\f -.&; 

dp £ wf -^ J# {$ Af £ dfy & if & -JJn & ^ $b 

-^ ^if tP ^ JU j* Ju- ^yt -&.J 

UJl ^ ^c/ x' ^ Uk £> -I:'-*' sji fata* 6 OK-/ f 

/ g,f jt <f>j \fjtjf *gfj .^ ^ yV\ jy j*y r r \jt ,\ 4»j 



325 



Notes 

(^y'> \JtT : Shakil Badayuni, Urdu poet and lyric composer, died 1970. 
ij^lf JJ 7,\s\ Sahir Ludhianawi, Urdu poet and lyric composer, died 1980. 
jy£ j£ IjXzj: Rabindranath Tagore, Bengali poet, winner of Nobel Prize for Literature, died 
1941. 

14.7 Conversation Practice 

1^. tf/\f\f Ji JsJj /of J l^- r 

14.8 Songs 

326 



00 J\ \y£ V4 ; J"-o>s?# f( 



y l/>>$ 3 toss fTjZXJ (];j Aj 

\jM del \3\ ib mi ¥sU 

to. ^ Jw^l^i 

jury jO^ i^i c^i « 

-^ C^l4« cjk 4^ *f e-/* 

-+& V wi cf „ r w 

!j* Jj vx^ (J* «j* (J l_/> l/ 

327 



-Jr v* 1& l/V oi £: ^x 

_a_ Of 1^1 ,ytj ?£ J ^.Jf. 



Glossary for Songs 
tirt= to go wrong, turn bad; to break down ty= gold (m) 



'y ft = fellow-singer (m) 
\% Z— x = except for x 
v^ )j£ is — to accompany; to support 
u~, ft — resplendent, glittering; flashy 
ii^ J = bright; showy; colorful; merry 
U/'J m the earth; earth, ground, soil (f) 
gr I = peace, security, safety (m) 
&>)* = hatred (f) 
tl^ = to efface, obliterate, abolish 
i— &= world, universe, earth (rn) 
ty= magic, spell; enchantment (m) 
y'- earth, soil, dust; dirt, filth (f) 



lfe»'= elegant, charming, smart; playful 
v*f = fair, meeting, assembly (m) 
<*-*? = beautiful, pretty; splendid 
C* ^ = to appear; to seem; to be seen 

& - true 

» 

f y *-j£j - to praise 

^* = chest, bosom, breast (m) 

C-T = heart; soul; mind (m) 

1z/jy= sun (m) 

t> = blue 

iy = sky; heavens (m) 

\jJvL = precious; dear; beloved 



328 





14.9 Vocabulary 


agricultural field (m) 




-/ 


appropriate 




i^rt* 


to break (transitive) 




ti? 


to break (intransitive) 




OS 


cheeks/countenance (m) 




j\s'j 


darkness (m) 




Uf-c 


democracy (f) 




C^rJtC 


emperor (m) 




,Vf 


empty 




Ji; 


to fall down 




\X 


farmer/peasant (m) 




iM 


fat 




y 


to finish 




t /r 


to fly; to cause to fly; 




tn'i 


to tease, to make fun of x 


an ju i% 


God willing (may God will that) 


J/l 0\ <(J)^. 


God forbid (may God not will 


<(J) <-/a 


that) 




,><> ; lA 


great 




r 


hard work (f) 




e# 


hard working 




f 



Mr 



329 



lo work hard 
henna (f) 
to hit 
if only 
living 
lover 
marble (m) 

once 
perhaps 
plow (m) 
possible 
lo remember 

for x to remember 
signature (m) 
so that 
sorrowful 
success (f) 

successful 
to tease, to annoy, to torment 
to think 
to throw 
time (period of); period (m) 



J* 



ijti 



(O./'Ww/ 



//>* 



j 



* - 



x& 



J 

if A 
tf >i A 

m 

ft 

• +* 

fefc. 



*r 



ijhs) 



330 



during this lime/period t£ 0^» Wi 
toy(m) Mf 

traveller (m/f) )^ 

wall (f) Mj 

wedding (f) (ijL" 

whole, entire; all; the whole ' J \f 



wonder (m) ^ 

wonders (pi) ^T^t 

museum .y* >rr / >r 

would that ^if on ly {J » 

wound; injury (f) ui*-£ 



331 



Chapter 15 
15.1 Condition-Result Clauses with J\ and ? 



Clauses stipulating a condition are usually marked with J I "if and frequently precede a 
"result" clause that begins with ?. Example: 



'result" claust 



'condition" claust 



.€ uiu ijftL^^r jt? r^% jxti jtfi 



If I (will) go to Lahore, I will bring cloth for you. 
Although the word J\ at the beginning of the "condition" clause may be dropped at times, the 
J that marks the "result" clause is obligatory. Various verb tenses (present, future, past, or 
subjunctive) can occur in either "condition" or "result" clauses depending on the degree of 
certainty implied. The use of the subjunctive (as opposed to indicative tenses.) indicates a greater 
degree of uncertainty or likelihood of fulfillment of a particular action. The examples below 
illustrate the usage of verb forms (subjunctive and indicative) in various sentences to convey 
degrees of certainty/uncertainty: 

1 . Purely hypothetical (use of subjunctive in both "condition" and "result" clauses, indicates high 
degree of uncertainty concerning both the condition and its fulfillment) 

If I should go to India, then I may see the Taj Mahal. 
2. More certainty than § 1 above ( "condition" uncertain; "result" certain) 



332 



If I should go to India, then I will see the Taj Mahal. 
3. More certainty lhan #2 above (fulfillment of "condition" more likely or certain, "result" 
certain) 

If I go to India, then I will see the Taj Mahal. 

If you are going to India, do see the Taj Mahal (for sure). 
At times, the "condition" clause may contain the simple past participle of a verb. In this context, 
the past participle often functions as a future conditional, indicating a condition that may be 
fulfilled in the future. Note: the past participle is not used in the "result" clause: 

If I (ever) go to India (in the future) then I will see the Taj Mahal. 
Improbable or contrary-to-fact conditions (irrealis) are expressed by using the present participle 
of the verb in both "condition" and "result" clauses: 

Jt£j if fyrt 2Jg d&*& (>£ 

Had we gone to India, we would have seen the Taj Mahal. 
If the speaker wants to indicate a definite past time for conditions that are impossible to fulfill, 
then the past participle of a verb followed by the present participle of ta* may also be used in 
both die "condition" and "result" clauses: 

Jfm u6 J &ft? (tji \fyr*JH J>A 

Had I gone to India, I would have seen the Taj Mahal. 



333 



Had wc met each other last year, we would have gotten married. 

If we had talked among ourselves, we would have become friends. 
*Note on usage : 'f}) *X ' used to describe action involving two persons; {JZ {J? I used to 
describe reciprocal action among more than two persons 

15.1 Reading and Translation Drill 

-ijf f*s* Jm y o* fa J- A -• 
-J?Utft*J- Ml uz- jjsL £/\ wT ft 

-<£. tig J Jij/i y z, dW» A 
.£. \SJi & £ c5j a 7 tr llh J4 ? A 

-f »% y % OA { 

-Lx ^fj: ct&i y LJ 'cy Jl f 

-4'<f <J fa ? 2-* ^K it eflfi t/ifJi - r 
Jfcg * f J». y ji/ iiu m L r ? A 

-4J v ff ± ^x ? urV i/t £ <u iX c/f - r ^ 

-s£ / 1/ fc« r* 5 J> -j r / ; if i ^ 

-2LU i> ^_/f y tr> jJLfyA 
_2Cb€ j&lL3$jrj 6>/ A 



334 



?Z_* -c-jjs£. £/\ ( \J"i L*x £J$ \£ >j)j\ (A -a 

-f*il/f J* /Vfy t* \f ft j: f j-l 2-Jt f< 

1*L 2Lb u£f<-/» dp m if -1 

~y At atf M * l. f- -* 
Atfjn utf M */&$ Sort erf 

isjfa-j fj\\f 4 s# J* >f 

Translate the following sentences into Urdu: 

1 . If I should go to that store, then I would buy the red carpet. 

2. If I go to Washington, then I will see the White House. 

3. If all of you come to my house, please bring food with you. 

4. Had you played with the boy, he would have liked you. 

5. If you play with that boy, he will like you very much. 

6. If you had been bom in America, you would have become the president of this country. 

7. If she would have spoken Urdu well, she would have been the prime minister of 
Pakistan. 

8. If you read Ghalib, he will teach you many things. 



335 



9. If you say so, I will cook the food. 

10. Had you been able to write Hindi, you could have taught this class. 

15.2 Expressing Presumptions and Suppositions with the Verb t^ 
Through the future form of the verb fcjf a speaker can also express presumptions and 
suppositions. For example, the sentence: 

J* < ftjLut M 

Those women will be at work, (future) 

can also mean: 

Those women must be at work, (supposition) 
Similarly, the sentence: 

There will be a lot of noise there, (future) 
can also mean: 
There must be a lot of noise there, (supposition) 
Note the use of the English "must" in the above sentences indicates probability or likelihood 
rather than a sense of obligation or duty. 

Presumptive and suppositional forms of various tenses can be formed by replacing the <£_ /Jt 

auxiliaries with the appropriate future form of fc.tf . Examples: 

Present continuous tense : ~Ut <Z~j a>l/£,j> w Those boys are studying, 

suppositional form: -£-. si t^,j a,!/ £-7 03 Those boys must be studying. 

Present tense : -C# 2—J^zX 4Z- £-$ \J\ M They talk to this boy. 

suppositional form: •JLjl 2-.J&\£L-lL$\J\ ti They must talk to this boy. 



Present perfect tense : -<£- \f 4(^ & J *N has gone to work, 
suppositional form: Jftf %£{*&& Ra J must have & one l0 work - 
The following table provides a review of the future tense forms of ijt : 



Feminine 


Masculine 


Pronoun 


dfWi <f* 


(few) 0* 


J. 


s* 


& 


7 


& 


Lx 


— 

f 


$» 


t* 


g/0) 


/, 


L* 


f- 


(Jm* 


L* 


< 


yi* 


L« 


v f 


/- 


L* 


•* 



1S.2 Reading and Translation Drill 

_£* 2-1/ JiU JV JUf 

- J* ii> J* tA» </ 



j 



337 



J* m f^JXrf l. u*& 4 J 

9 w 

JL* '£. JS? /ft »j j> 

-£* ^ Jyf «J J,u _T ^£ „*£ J" UJC ./ 

15.2 Substitution Drill 

Change the verb forms in the following sentences so that they agree with the substituted subject 
or object. 

fruits 

sweets 
mango 
yogurt 

Xl~ii) 4jfi(£ j* (id j 

Akbar's sister 
Anita's brother 

338 



Radha's girlfriends 

my cat 

Raj's father 
our family 
your mother-in-law 
their servants 

(hat handsome boy 
those famous filmstars 

our youngest daughter 
his eldest son 
15.3 Expressing Compulsion with the Verb fc> 

The infinitive of a verb employed in conjunction with t!/ is used to indicate actions that the 
subject is forced, compelled, or cannot help but perform. The subject is marked by / . This 
construction is similar to the infinitive + C*- construction introduced in 9.5. There is, however, 
an important difference in the nuance of the two constructions. The former construction 
(infinitive + fcJ' ) is used for compulsion that is external to the subject while the latter (infinitive 
+ *£~) implies compulsion that stems from the subject, for example, from duty and obligation. 
Compare the following examples: 

.^ tr> CI? &1(8rt f&E* 

Hussein has to go to Islamabad, (forced by external circumstances) 

339 



Hussein must go to Islamabad, (from a sense of duty, obligation) 
For transitive verbs, the infinitive may or may not agree with objects) in number and gender, but 
forms of t£ must retain agreement with object(s). Examples: 

J> t$/ty /cAs- ** if if* 

Due to poverty, they had to sell their house, 

Tomorrow Shafique will have to wash the clothes. 
For intransitive verbs and transitive verbs with no object, both the infinitive and form of Owill 
be masculine singular. Examples: 

I had to return home. 

You will have to give, 
(no object mentioned; infinitive and t# in masculine singular form). 



9 

15.3 Reading and Translation Drill 



-^ r> \fj&\ tin &J Am <L J A j>j / { 



340 






-n 



-It t/ 

Translate into Urdu: 

1. Raj had to invite Sunil to the wedding. 

2. Mummy Darling will have to spend a lot of money in making the arrangements for Raj 

341 



and Nargis' wedding. 

3. My car is bad. You will have to use my father-in-law's car to lake the child to the 
hospital. 

4. Ravi has to consider this decision thoughtfully. 

5. He had to give her this expensive present in return for her kindness. 

6. Indian prides must wear red saris at weddings, not white ones. 

7. The rich must end poverty in the world. 

8. They were so helpless that for four months they had to eat only potatoes. 

9. Due to her helplessness, the poor girl had to agree to marry him. 

10. We will have to turn on (£%) the fan immediately! It is too hot in this room! 

15.4 Passives 
Passives in Urdu are formed by adding the inflected form of the verb CU to the past participle of 
a verb. The following examples illustrate the difference between active and passive sentences: 
Active sentence: 

I eat a banana. 

Passive sentence: 

r • •• ** 
A banana is eaten. 

In the active sentence the subject (J?) [ s asserted and the verb agrees with it. In contrast, in the 

passive sentence, the subject is not mentioned and passive verb (past participle of the verb tU» i 

the inflected form of tV in the present tense) agree in number and gender with what was the 



+ 



342 



object of the active sentence -- "banana" ( if). Thus, the grammatical object of an active 
sentence becomes in fact the subject in a passive sentence. The two sets of examples below 
illustrate that the passive may be created in a variety of tenses by inflecting the verb 11^ 
appropriately. Study them carefully, noting the agreement of the inflected forms of tlf in various 



tenses with the subject of the passive sentence. 

-of </^ J.Z » 

-m & /-> u% » 

• • •* •* 



That thing was seen. 



Those things were seen. 
That thing is being seen. 



That thing will be seen. 



Those things can be seen. 



Those things used to be seen. 



The banana was eaten. 



The bananas were eaten. 



The banana is being eaten. 



The banana will be eaten. 



The banana can be eaten. 



The bananas used to be eaten. 



When passives are used in an impersonal sense, the verb is put in the third person masculine 
singular form and no explicit subject is mentioned. Examples: 

It has been written. 



343 



It is said. 
Re-inserting the original subject of the active sentence into a passive sentence : 
If the original subject of the aclive sentence is to be re-introduced into the passive sentence, it is 
marked by the postposition <=^-. Reinserting the original subject into a passive sentence occurs 
mostly in negative sentences, hence the construction is called the passive of incapacity. 
Examples; 

• ™ — •• 

I cannot eat the banana, 
(literally, the banana cannot be eaten by me.) 

4 J i fa e- Js 

The patient could not drink the medicine, 
(literally, the medicine could not be drunk by the patient.) 
The passive of incapacity differs from the C*"* construction in the negative in that it implies that 
the subject could not perform the action for physical reasons. 

15.4 Reading and Translation Drill 

tru ^^{toffsdZ&friJH ^jis-Jis a j\£ # -tf Jt* J'y; u^v 

1 

344 



Jgu \f(ti Jk/! -/ -f* l/' -i^ 

-if jig i" -r 
-if 6*°> #u 

•• • 

-if if W*/ if ii> **j<* jl Jr 

.&. if j if S*-i/ 6 *^» <-&* l> *~ } 

i^i^l^v/tJl .*&> erf 
-<l. Jjf <£# tf* *?- <5lf li^'/i/ 4 ift* J>'^ * 

— w * 

3k <A *£ tif® iTcJii c~ utt Sit e/f /i? r^ <^ 

jfxtiji */tP ^ 41 tf, fcf 



345 



* 



- pronounced as "Lailaa"; the last letter is called "alif maqsura. " 
Translate the following sentences into Urdu: 

1. All the food was eaten at last night's party. 

2. The wedding will be celebrated with pomp and gusto at our house tomorrow. 

3. Was my favorite song sung? 

4. The house can be built in three months. 

5. The Taj Mahal was built in Shah Jahan's time. 

6. The bride and the groom are being praised. 

7. The poor farmers will be helped. 

8. This Urdu book will be read at all universities in America. 

9. Have the preparations been made? 

10. Many beautiful flowers are being bought for Raj and Nargis' wedding. 

15.5 Passive Intransitive Verbs 
In addition to the passive construction introduced above, Urdu has several intransitive verbs that 
are often, if not always, translated into English by using the passive. In many cases, the stems of 
these so-called passive intransitive verbs also have transitive counterparts. While the focus in 
the intransitive form is on the action itself or the result of the action, the emphasis in the 
transitive form is on the doer of the action. Examples: 

Transitive form: $3? to open 

Intransitive form: t^* to be opened 

Transitive form: tjJ? to break 



Intransitive form: 



W 



to be broken 



346 



Note the "passive" character of the English translations of the intransitive verbs in the examples 



below; 



Transitive verb: 



Intransitive verb: 



Transitive verb: 



I opened the window. 

The window opened. 

Hussein broke my glass. 



Intransitive verb; 



jf&i %j\£\j£ 



My glass broke. 
Complex verbs when formed with the verb C jK may also have a passive intransitive nuance to 
them in contrast to those formed with IV which are transitive in nature. Study the pair of 
complex verbs listed below: 



o begin, to get started 


t*U} 


to begin 


t/W 


to be finished 


fe*j** 


to finish 


tff 


to be prepared; to get 


fcj* Jl? 


to prepare 


a* 



ready 



347 



to be bom fcitf \j£ to produce, reproduce %f \j£ 



for X to be at fault 
Examples: 



fctf U <=^ X to make a mistake k/** y 



I begin this work (job). 
This work begins/gets started. 

?L# ^ Xl? tuCt l/ 

Are you preparing food? 

-^ ^ 71; cuCuj, J. 

Yes, food is being prepared. 

Ali made a mistake. 

Al i was at fault (literally, "a mistake was made by Ali"). 
Note: The last example, using the intransitive construction, implies that the agency for the action 
was somewhat beyond the subject's control. 

1 5.5 Reading and Translation Drill 

-^ & fl>} ft & „ j 



348 



y J& fd$ l/V* d* 6* l* l^ X* 1 <J^ 



349 



Translate into Urdu; 

1 . A temple is being built at that place. 

2. The wall of the old house broke. Who broke it? 1 don't know. 

3. Hundreds of thousands of germs are being produced every day in this filth. 

4. A lot of money was spent on building this road. 

5 . Finish him off immediately! 

15.6 C as a Rhetorical Particle 
t as a rhetorical particle has two main uses in Urdu: 

1. It can be a tag at the end of a statement seeking affirmation of a fact; 

You love me, don't you? 

2. It can be a tag at the end of a request to make it more insistent: 

n zfj ti j At, /**> 6x 

Won't you please hang my picture on the wall? 
15.6 Reading and Translation Drill 

!t )J t tC 

it to J&tL ^xd* '( 

350 



n jTcfo* ^-f^ f^ j s£# iT&'-' -»' i/^ 

15.7 i**^ (Conversation) 

?tt $.j %r iffy j h/j 
-J* 



351 



f&ftfM cl. J- (-( l& 


•&\j 


Jx **' -f-tf l/l i-vi/? Jj <x Jtf$& c-(j:-o\ 


■</} 


-ijri* yi tjjl/ \f- f*)y 




0*]f&3u£ 


•tyj 


+./<**? 




0* \ftf- e? ij^ 




<LJ5 & o»if y 








!i/0 6/£ 4" 1 ^ '^£/^4< <«f~ >> JTii/J W «/j 




f^jp u- ? / 


:<// 


J*> tf/ctf 




f_ jt <X ? 




-rfl tfc? u^ 




/^ (/ ;i^ ,*) (jl^»l? j£ u-jfty *_~/fc i/ &fr tf ^i 


V' 


~ut o-j t—> ->t kjOu* 




-ti <p; * j? aC<i~A 4 #i 


l/j 


-•c. \j <-> J t (JjCU (£f jCh f 


&j 


(.£- ij'j f c4 / eM^ «=- o ii' t^ 5 -^ ^ (#•»*) 






Sj 


n«£j(je ^/ l? &t yp^oi !(/0 


J 


!l4' 


*/■> 


U Jb-> U$£~ifis» t—'b •*& *Jf ^. ? JUlj 2-l£ ~U\ 


J 



352 



—5/0- $ \ki It? £ : </0 

\c~J*j£ <z- *Jt !(/ ^i( :t/0 

f( fyj -^ \£> J. J*;* 2 fbuL. \&fr -tg lJJ:/ 

[$/» £> \h -£% s/fl#j «*< ^ -tf i* o\& fosM 
Pcl/Ji ti tjff ±y Jp -*- e)2 4 c/u 

JL. fbb p .L^t/U/* tf«fc tfe <£ cf /c/ajC tftfij 



353 



^jj *j\r ja ? w-JL Ji t^f i? J; Jx 

-L| l// «** ^-2i.v </| *LliX 

-LxJ? &,*/.?» J» is t/y iZ'J'is ~>. -14 14 : l? 

yj&J :J) I 

(&J J)i \fs) 






354 



JtfjfOU 1-J..,/^ if .=,1 £i -ifj^jlf \£s<&s 
•U J>uCtf oL V lTl/l^/i \<-/f<J. W^^3)ji di 



Sbama: 
Sulochna: 



Shama: 



Sulochna: 






15.8 Conversation Practice 



(Sulochna and Shama are Nargis' friends who live in London) 



Oh Sulochna, did you hear that Nargis is getting married? 



Yes, Sunil told me. Poor guy, he had tears in his eyes when he asked me,"Sister 



Sulochna how will T spend my life without Nargis?! ". I was unable to bear his 
distress. (!(/ {f"J U^6^!{ifiJ^ <Z~J*) I 
heart is made out of stone! 



started to cry!! I think Nargis' 



Shama; 



Her foolish heart! A book can be written about Raj, Nargis, and Sunil. Sunil 
ought to stop crying. He must start studying. He is no longer 16 years old. He is 
now 20. Do you know what preparations are being made for Nargis' wedding? 
A lot of money is being spent on this wedding. I have heard that work is being 
done on Nargis' house. Expensive clothes are being bought. Nargis' mother told 
me to buy some clothes for her if J go to Lahore. Lahore has beautiful clothes for 
brides. So when I go to Lahore next month I will bring clothes for Nargis. 
You will bring clothes from Lahore? I think Karachi has better and cheaper 



355 



clothes. These days, Karachi's weather must also be very good. If you go to 
Karachi, you must go to Rambo market. You will be able to buy some good but 
cheap clothes there. I think Nargis will look so beautiful in a red sari. 

Sulochna: It's good that we are talking to each other about this. But I don't like Karachi 

very much. When I went to Karachi two years ago, I saw a dead man on the 
road! As soon as I saw him, I started crying. I told my mother that I will never 
go back to that city. 

Shama: Sulochna darling, don't live in the past (departed time). Don't think of dead men! 

I have seen dead men on the streets of New York and Mumbai! I know the 
governments of India and Pakistan need to do more to help the poor but you 
cannot provide the medicine for all the illnesses of the world. You are not a 
Mother Teresa! 

Sulochna: Shama, I used to think that your heart has a lot of love in it. But perhaps it is 

made out of stone! 



Shama: 



Oh Sulochna, you are always crying. Your heart is made out of salt. Forgive me, 
don't be upset with me. If you want to help the poor, go and work with them. 
You wi 11 not be able to end poverty in India and Pakistan while sitting in 
London. Come, let's think of happy things...Hke Nargis 1 wedding. Do you want 
to sing a song with me? What's the latest song from Bollywood? 



15.9 Songs 
{* M) £~ iTJf >U (* fr* ?^Z 



356 



\SjS ^ tig & 



<L. J? 4_ /jt * A A 'X J' 



^e / 






^ yU t / ^ >U T t / 
f. % 1 1/' ^ % t LjT 



(r 



357 



(jit Lit *J»k> 

<=- 6* js difb l£ »'v if l" 

f- (3* Jgf *? &* fc 
(r).' >i ,j) s^ <U ot »>•; &J cJ .A »>•; ol »>•; 

ji;T ^_ &j (r) y ^ jji^j \$ &)» 
!jL »>'J c/ <lJ ol »>*; Ci/ <^l ol »>'> ol »>'v 

• * ■• • * • 

jt OJW ^ [J* y" j>s '? jt uytr cT 6/ 

AT ^ u; ^ (s, >dj<^(> &~M 

bl 9>*J <zJ <lJ ol »Jj cJ <lJ oi *>*-/ ol »jj 
• • • • • » 

— a 

bl *>*J *r^^ ol ©>'J &*<lJ ol oJZ; ol *>*-/ 



(r 



Glossary for Songs 
f = beloved; idol (m/f) J/ = flute (f) 

-/'/ <L- = restless 
CI?*' = unknown, unwitting 
j\f I = confirmation; acknowledgment (m) 
t^J ■ to beat, throb 
j\J>\ = revelation; declaration; display (ni) 



C^t" = tune (f) 

(^I'J' = Islamic call to prayer (f) 

f*/^-* * ^L* = re ''s'° n ^^ ^ a ' tn ( m ) 

X i = tempest, whirlwind; storm (f) 
tO = to stop, to rest; to be hindered 



358 



15 J - loyalty; faithfulness (f) 


*/ 


= hate; hatred (f) 


A 

JtfT = martyr; one who is slain (m/f) 


t/>= 


blood; murder; slau 


sStsj = riches, wealth; dominion; rule (f) 


/-. 


iagger(m) 


j$ J = chain; fetters (f) 


jf- 


sword (f) 


&l£* = faith; belief <m) 


A fc*J~ long live 


15.10 Vocabula 


T 


to agree upon x 




fa [f\j y x 


arm, embrace (f) 




4k 


arrangement (m) 




f&i 


body (m) 




C? 


to be born 




br<« 


bride (f) 




LVvc^-J 


bridegroom (m) 




yi 


to call x on the phone 




t/c/V /x 


to celebrate, commemorate 




fcfe* 


cure (m) 




6W 


decision (m) 




J* 


details, explanation; analysis (0 




cT*" 


to dial the phone 




w,&) 


distress, misery, anxiety (f) 




hi 


dream (m) 




u& 



to dry (intransitive) 



359 



to end, conclude (transitive) *-/ * 

to end, conclude (intransitive) G-tf \ 

• 
expenditure, expense (m) ty-? 

to spend, to expend (transitive) **r &7 

to be spent, expended (intransitive) t-^ (S'-r 

fan; ventilator (ffl) &v 

festival ffitf/Wjfm 

u 

i. 
J? 

healthy & ^ 

in return forx; instead of x U~ c-+Jg-£~ x 



filth (f) 

fork; thorn (m) 
germs (m) 
gift (in) 



life partner (m/f) 
melody 
middle 
mistake (f) 
party; invitation (t) 
to invite x 



peace, safety (m) 
piece, morsel (m) 



J* 



to have a party forx LV i&$*J (jx 



360 



pleased; contented; agreed 
to be pleased with x 



to agree upon x 



pomp and gusto (f) 
potato (m) 



poverty (f) 
praise (f) 



to praise x 



Ramadan, Muslim month (m) 



relationship / connection (m) 



river (m) 



road (m) 



snow (f) 



to spread (intransitive) 
to start, begin (transitive) 
to start, begin (intransitive) 



use, employment (m) 

to use 

to usex 
without 
witness (m/f) 



* 

A 

* 

t* it*/ 



361 



Chapter 16 
16.1 The "Izafa" 

The "izafa, " or "addition," is a construction of Persian origin frequently used in Urdu. 
Linguistically, the "izafa" is an enclitic, indicated by placing the subscript sign "zer, " i.e., m 
(also used to represent a short "/" vowel) after a noun. The "izafa" is used to express either (i ) a 
possessive relationship between two nouns or (ri) an adjectival modification of a noun, 
(i) Possessive relationship between two nouns : 

In such a construction, the "possessor" noun follows the "possessed one" and the enclitic "izafa, " 
that reflects the relationship between the two nouns, fails in the middle and can frequently be 
translated as "of." Examples: 

the daughter of the Nizam, 
("possessed one" daughter = /* ' ) "possessor" Nizam = f\i& ) 

the war of independence 
(war = »— C^ independence = ij i'J ' ) 

the government of America 
(government = C^*Jr America = ~£/*') 
In highly Persianized Urdu, geographical features are frequently written with the "izafa, " with 

362 



the geographical entity preceding its proper name: 

Mount Sinai 
(mountain ~ bj Sinai ■ Jjr) 
(ii) Adjectival modification of a noun: 

In such a construction, the noun is followed by an attributive adjective and again, their 
relationship is reflected by the enclitic "izafa" that falls between the two. When translating such 
a construction into English, place the attributive adjective before the noun. Examples: 

eft* Jj 

foolish heart 

(heart = \J) foolish = (^Ot) 

**?{* 

noble name 
(name = p ' noble = *— g?yO 

the Greatest Mughal 
(Mughal = \J greatest = p ') 

the [Indian] subcontinent 
(continent =V small m jt> ) 



363 



16.1 Reading and Translation Drill 

1 . Read and translate the fol lowing couplets with the assistance of the glossary: 



Glossary 
edit = foolish 



Glossary 

— ■ 
(J'yt = separation (m) 

v* = to pass off, to pass over 
tV^ - to be entertained 



recover 



Glossary 

fc**r = to leave, to abandon 

sJ = c\oud{$) (m) 



$ja j,< ir 






364 



r^= night (f) 



k— ^ tjlr = moon (m) 

Glossary 

0^* = union, meeting (m) 

jl = friend, beloved (m/f) 



2. Read and translate the following passage concerning the famous Indian movie, MughaJ-e 
Azam (The Greatest Mughal) 

&£M Cftf jftf^e- Jfjn/ft .£.£..£ >**/i,Pf <L*n 
£-*jS\$&«-$M ft A/\fL. U*< -&-* &M *# ***>{ Wl /* 

if' ciif <£' m jt of J J m -<z- >/ wp c~ Jf £^>m d?'\jM 
J a, &J 6ft v f\/J4 Lrf £*/utM ** ttib-pJH 



** 



365 



vSiji ^j^.i- ^^-ifd^^—J^' j*-£. j\f^i ft" j/\>\Lj4 

* Prince Salim (1569-1627); Mughal prince who on becoming emperor in 1605 adopted the 

royal title Jehangir (literally "world seizer") 

** Anarkali, legendary courtesan in the Mughal court, with whom Prince Salim fell in love 

** * Emperor Akbar ( 1 542- 1 605); considered to be the greatest emperor of the Mughal dynasty; 

reigned from 1556 to 1605; father of Salim. 

16-2 Some Common Uses of Present and Past Participles 
Thus far we have encountered present and past participles in the context of different verbal 
tenses. However, in Urdu, like in English, present and past participles can serve a variety of 
other functions such as adjectives or adverbs (as in "burning fire" "while walking" and so on). 
When employed in this manner, present and past participles are usually followed by the 
appropriate form of the past participle of the verb" Ctf" Qjyi <2^yi dfi). 
I. Present Participle as Adjective 

When used in an adjectival sense, these participles and the forms of "tyZ" attached to them 
decline according to the case, number, and gender of the nouns they modify. Note, however, that 
in the case of feminine adjectival participles, the singular form modifies both singular and plural 

366 



feminine nouns. Examples: 

a dancing girl J-/ l)*? tj*t 

a singing boy *s *yt C*& 

laughing actors Jm*J* 4~~2f ^£ 

playing girls (Jl/)' 0* l5^ 

shy bride C^J 0* iK/ - 

moving bus (./* 0* 0* 
In many instances, the past participle of" t.K " may be omitted without affecting the meaning: 

I am unable to read books in a moving car. 
2. Past Participle as Adjective 

Whereas the present participle of a particular verb, acting as an adjective, conveys the 
progression of particular actions, the past participle as adjective connotes a state of completion 
or a passive state. Thus, at times, the past participle may convey a present stative sense. For 
instance: t£*jf J-tf \fr would mean a seated woman (that is a woman in the state of being 
seated). In contrast *£•-// J-K tf" , with the present participle, would mean a woman who is 
in the act or process of sitting down. 

dead man [$$ '# [/ 

kept books UrlXo-tf O s 

written letters & 2—# ^ 

fallen things t£j% &*f $'* 

a seated man i$# ** l& 



367 



a standing woman &jf (J_r? [J J? 

constructed buildings USjif (Jjf (£ 

a past time jLj Ij? \jj 

3. Participles as Nouns 

Occasionally participles, like adjectives, can be used as nouns. They may or may not be followed 

by the appropriate form of the past participle of the verb" tyt" (J^f *£_.*? Wjf j.For 

example: 

Wake up /pick up the sleeping one. 

Don't bother the person who is reading (lit. the reading one). 
A famous Urdu proverb also illustrates this construction: 

What wouldn't a dying person do? 
(In a desperate state, a person would not think twice about the consequences of his/her actions.) 
4. Participles as Adverbs 

Urdu participles used in an adverbial sense can often be translated into English with phrases 
beginning with "while" and often express incomplete actions. The adverbial participle phrase 
almost always appears in singular masculine oblique form. The usual word order in sentences 
that contain adverbial participles is: subject - adverbial participle - object - verb. Examples: 

JJlj (0 &j*4f wT( i^jt UfJfL ut 

While going home, I saw a beautiful girl. 



368 






While bathing, that girl was singing. 

\£> 2-* ± /J/ in if 

Watch the cut-up chicken walk! 
(A note posted outside a trickster's stall in Lahore!) 



5. Participle + {f* 

In order to convey immediacy or to give the sense of "as soon as" or "immediately after," the 
particle {f* may be added to the masculine oblique present participle: 

The little boy started crying as soon as he saw the dog. 

I will go there immediately after I finish eating. 

6. Participle + jUi 

Masculine oblique present participle combined with the word " C-> ) " connotes the simultaneity 
Of two actions, that is, the action of the main verb taking place at the same time as the action 
signified by the participle + " *Us " construction. Example: 

While driving (at the time of driving) a car, one should not speak on the telephone. 

7. Repeated Participles 

Present participles can often be repeated to signify that the action of the repeated participle ends 
or results in the action of the main verb. Repeated past participles signify a past action resulting 

369 



in a continuous or repetitive state. Examples: 

JJ5 ^y 2^> 2^> jt 

I began thinking while studying. 

Poor Majnun died weeping. 

Sir, you will tire of sitting (and sitting). 

16.2 Translation Drills 

Translate into idiomatic English: 

-it -/ J*-/ l/' i/jIW i/* /c/^y ,i 

*£% ctfcrj,* /, a*-J^ 2-k iS/sta v r - r 

-l(? 24 <£_> ^ ^r^s £_^ ^^ ^e , r 

-*f&* a /ah ifjf^i -x z-j at i.u £_* *->/? .a 

-*£> /$ in &Sf r.i/i ,i 

^ l/'r* If tA* ^ -44 y '^ £j* *_* ^.t ^ *o (/-!• 

j/V Z-K 2-fj 4 is Jt 

370 



J? \j J &} i-x 2->j /$■ u Jf 

tut z£<ijj> L^t LJftfVst \fst 

Translate into Urdu; 

1 . Give some sweets to the crying girl. 

2. Do not talk to the studying boy (the boy who is studying). 

3. The laughing actor burst out crying all of a sudden! 

4. That man talks to dead people. 

5. We cannot study while eating. 

6. While studying (at the time of studying) one should not watch T.V. 

7. Ask Sunil's broken heart ! 

8. Raj does not like shy brides. 

9. As soon as he came home, Mummy darling gave Raj some food to eat. 

10. This is a book written by Reshma (lit. This is Reshma's written book). 

1 1 . Please give tea to the person who is singing (1 it. the singing one). 

16.3 Present Participle and t?J Construction 
The present participle of a verb when combined with the verb t?7 results in the iterative form. 

The iterative indicates the constant repetition of an action and is often translated as "keeps " In 

this form both the present participle and the verb l^v agree with the subject. The form cannot be 
employed in the negative, nor can it be used with compound verbs/aspect indicators. In addition, 

371 



the present participle of C?-/ cannot be used in this construction, 

1 will reach there in ten minutes. You keep working. 

Sunil kept going to Nargis' house, but Nargis had already left with Raj. 

It is my request that you keep trying to learn Urdu instead of learning Arabic. 
Note: The present participle of tU when combined with the tfj has two meanings: its expected 
meaning "keep on going" and an idiomatic one "to disappear, to be lost." 

if on ly such evils wou Id disappear from the world ! 
In the past tense, the particle *i— is not used even when the participle is that of a transitive verb. 

16.4 Present Participle and fcl? Construction 
The present participle of a verb when combined with fcU can have several meanings, the most 
common being: (I) persevering or deliberately continuing with an action and (2) gradual 
unfolding of the action resulting in change. Since tw the governing verb is intransitive, 
constructions in the past tense do not use the particle i 

He had a high fever but he went on working- 

Continue eating meat and your health will keep deteriorating. 

372 



Time kept passing and we gradually forgot each other. 
16.3-16.4 Reading and Translation Drill 

-1/ 

I* 

■in * & fj\J*f \fb/b\ti fi/ifuz 

Translate the following sentences using the present participle and KstJ construction: 

1 . Instead of talking to me on the phone, he kept sending me letters. 

2. Thirteen years after coming to the United States, they keep on remembering Pakistan. 

3. 1 kept trying to explain to him and he kept watching the movie. 

4. On Saturday, Sarah and Saima kept dialing the telephone, but because of the rain the 
phone was not working. 

Translate the following sentences into Urdu using the present participle and tU construction: 

1 . Keep on saying your (Muslim ritual) prayers and then see how happy God is with you! 

2. Shaan went on throwing the trash onto the street, hut the children kept bringing it back 

into his house. 

3. She went on narrating her (own) story and the little girl gradually fell asleep. 



373 



4. Why wouldn't Rakesh be angry? Rcshma kept making fun of him instead of listening to 

his poetry. 

16.5 Present Participle in the Narration of the Past 

Present participles without auxiliary verbs are frequently encountered in narrations of those past 
events that occurred routinely or habitually. In such cases, the narration usually begins with an 
initial sentence containing a present participle followed by an auxiliary, but in subsequent 
sentences/statements, the auxiliary is dropped and the present participle suffices on its own. 

In his childhood Sajid would often go to his grandmother's house during the summer holidays, 
eat mangoes, swim, and watch Shah Rukh Khan's films. 

Until one day before his death (literally, transfer), he did all the house work, reply to all the 

letters, and try to help the poor, 
16.5 Reading and Translation Drill 
Translate into English: 

d ~£JtJ\s£ ufi#2-& euCf.*/* j>j /, f*JL ££.> uH/k* f^A J 

Jry ^/Ji/Jtx jt Jj $4 J J(j. jj fi k__^®\£- fat $-fa - r 

-V 
Js/JtfoJtiS'^ i 13/ 4 *-*} 4-> » \ & tjt tf&4 V if *r* - r 






374 



Translate into Urdu: 

1 . During our childhood, before our grandmother's death, we used to get up at 6 am every 
morning, swim, take a bath, drink milk, eat fresh hot rotis, and then go to school. 

2. Thai sly boy would eat all the sweets, lie, and bother all the shopkeepers. 

3. While driving her car that girl would listen to music, sing songs, and talk to her 
friends on her cell phone. 

4. While walking down the streets, these mad boys would scream, throw fruits and 
vegetables, and make fun of democracy. 

1 6.6 Past Participle and KJ Construction 
The masculine form of a past participle when combined with the verb t-/ indicates an action 
performed habitually. In such constructions, only the verb tJ inflects, agreeing in number and 
gender with the subject. Since this construction is considered to be intransitive in the past tense, 
the subject is not marked by the particle L- . 

Son, go on helping [habitually] the poor. 

Mummy darling habitually used to come to our house to drink tea. 

Keep drinking your medicine [for your own benefit]. 



375 



Note: For this construction, the verb tU uses IU as its past participle and not its normal form 

Nargis habitually goes to Raj's house. 
16.6 Reading and Translation Drill 

\* 2-fn & 7 }j& *fx \f/f* yS 

-£ ijjy uh 64 64 £$ y/ « 

Translate the following Into Urdu : 

1. When we were healthy, we used to go [habitually] to that beautiful garden every evening. 

2. I never talked to his wife. I used to remain [habitually] quiet in his house. 

3. In his childhood Ra; used to climb [habitually] the tree that was in front of his house, 

4. I don't know why my parents don't give me permission to go to the movies. When they 
were in college they used to watch films every Friday. 



376 



16.7 The Uses of? \J* 

J* \JS occurs frequently in colloquial Urdu-Hindi as a substitute for J>J), "otherwise." 

Get used to working in the heat, otherwise you will have a difficult time in Dubai- 

J^U a> k 4 J&' ?L/? J \S\ Ob J 
Take (literally, eat) the medicine, otherwise the fever will increase. 

You call the police, otherwise I will do so myself. 
y^/W is also used in colloquial Urdu-Hindi, usually in the context of conversations, to respond 
negatively to assertions and connotes "not really," "no way," or "no." 

Faraz: Shad ! Are you talking among yourselves about me? 

Shad: Not really! Why would we talk about you? 

16.7 Reading and Translation Drill 

Mm 






377 



jJUc *Jb &x£Ja 3c /yt&ifl~ut 9 jt 

16.8 Emphatic Negative Assertions 

Emphatic negative assertions are created by combining JJ with the oblique infinitive of the 
verb to be negated, followed by L-t\jtf. The possessive ^agrees in gender and number with 
the subject. 

vtjLt Jt±£ jt -j* <£& *'£*$ jt 

I am used to speaking the truth. I won't lie! 
16.8 Reading and Translation Drill 

\Jl-M fj? J A* -%c^ ^it i*3j ipf _r 

\C Lfu? J*f\SLS/(*ij\ Chi ,o 

Translate the following sentences into Urdu using the above construction: 

1 . It is appropriate that you ask her about the newspaper. I will not ask her! 



378 



2. I will not call Ali! 

3. Salim can dry the clothes. I will not dry them! 

4. I will not sit in the hot sun! 

5. I have to go work now. I will not wait for the bus! 

6. I will not lie to my parents! I am used to [habituated to] telling the truth. 

16.9 r^ (Conversation) 

$}/ -£ k. QfzLC &*& Js i/J M £ if# -q&fftjjj. 
£ At fin 6 j?. ^4 m£ "iSx S&'S-^ / i*<^^ iTeie^ 

&** td&i 6/ -Hk &/ J) #M £ *£> itfftisl-ifx J>j± 
-f~o*X rA j/^lTfin \S/ ~<f- >ffr 6H & 'cT^i J i*"* 4 ? 

■ U&i 4% ~4> ifL-jOjil &b ut ZJj 2-x ZJg tffti* e^tfjS 

Su^ 4** Ju>/ L4 L4£d&\ <&if i-yiZ-f (* & *J 
\f- \j&\tf* e*Jv £<fi -#- '<-* & ±ff;t <J# 6* & l * 



379 



•'t 512 !Jcl :gJv 

16.10 Conversation Practice 

Sunil meets Raj and Nargis after they come back from their honeymoon. 

Sunil: Nargis, I kept calling you but you weren't home. 

Raj: Don't you know that we had gone our honeymoon? 

Sunil: I am used to talking to Nargis every evening. What more can I say? 

Raj: Don't bother us Sunil. Nargis will absolutely not play tennis with you. 

Nargis: Raj! Let me speak otherwise I will neveT forgive you. Sunil is my friend and you 

need to get used to him instead of fighting with him. 
Sunil: Look Nargis! I have written this ghazal for you: "I kept thinking of you all night 

long, my moist eyes kept smiling all night long. " 



380 



Raj: He is lying to you Nargis. This is not his own ghazal. This is a stolen ghazal! 

Nargis: Sunil, is your name Makhdum? You ought to be ashamed. 

Sunil: Forget about the ghazal. Have you forgotten we used to play tennis in our 

childhood, cook food, sing songs and dance? The truth is that \ love you! 
Raj: You ought to have your brain examined (medically). You arc crazy! Nargis is my 

wife and she loves only me! 
Sunil: Oh what should I do? Nargis, I will write another ghazal for you. 
Nargis: Enough! Sunil, you keep on writing poetry but I won't read it (emphatic). Raj, you 

need to start writing poetry. 
Raj: Listen to this song. I just wrote it: How crazy is my heart! It loves you. 
Nargis: Raj, I know that you did not write this song. We learned it in Urdu class. Don't you 

you remember that you kept singing it for me every day after class? No, my dear 
Raj. It is not necessary for you to write a song for me. Your beautiful eyes have 

stolen my heart. 

16.11 Songs 

&U K lis fct <^U!LJ2-tf^j 



381 



O) ± ak (f 

(r) 2k 4»'V 
(r) ±j ^f j ,-j, J^ 

(r) ± 2k.^L Jy 



T V 






<*> 



M j 



382 



Glossary for songs 



SJ2* = fate (m) 


/^= entire, whole (suffix) 


>xV= Alexander the Great 


/? &h= the entire night 


(y ^)\v= my darling 


f^ = eye(f) 


f = tyranny, oppression (m) 


• 
r = moist, wet 


t*?=to win 


3 J > = pain (m) 


ta^ = to cause to bend 


\j = candle (0 


tu? = to be called, to be named 


Wf =tob«rn 


I? Oi, ~ *>y chance, accidentally 


( = sorrow (m) 


oh /^ = road side 


s 

9- flame (f) 


•• 
IV = to stop; to stand still 


li/'L = reed flute (f) 


fcW = to decline, to fade, to sink 


(.£ /^ musical, melodious 


^l J = the world; time; age (m) 


* 
ijif" = pleasing, appealing 


^U* = story, tale (m) 


Ll^ = cry, voice, call (f) 


f^ - brief, short 




tjjj = lamp; light (m) 




\A - to be extinguished, to go out 






16.12 Vocabulary 


to bite, to cut 


W 


to bother 


fc/J 


consideration, -deep thought (m) 


• 
7/ 


to consider thouehtfullv 


0»V 



to take x into consideration ^Jjf's 






dear, precious, beloved (m/f) yjf 

death (lit. transfer) (m) 0$l 

to die (for x to die) tjf Jl^J ^ x 

effort (f) \J^f 

to try tJlff'/ 

enemy (rn/f) (yi 

helpless U'd-~ / JX' 

helplessness (f) (/- ^_ / (J>iC 

instead of £_ (** {j. / Z" 

iie(m) ,£,*« 

to lie fcJ^ Li^>^ 

long live jL jjjfj 



mosquito (m) 



>e 



pair, couple (f) (Jj£ 

parents (m) i£jlh 

to perform; to accomplish; to pay tj 0' 

principle (m) [jy*\ 

request (f) ifJlr 
slave (m) ftf? 

slave girl (f) j^ 

to take care of x fc-/gjl*f ^rj y 

364 



throne (m) &? 



truth (m); true 



S 



to speak the truth ^i & 

to be used to x, to be accustomed to x V.K ijjw Ox 






Reading Passages 



386 



Reading Passage One 

&L>4 -+&* i/4 i/f>Vi >-»' z-tlfy' tabu mCo*/:^/. 

jt-Lj-Jr^C u?" it fy i/j -<f- X^ r L * !/** ^ ^ 

-or v j -/ ^ ^ J-v / 



Glossary 



^V 


the Subcontinent 


& 


cold(t) 


tfv 


winter (f) 


\fy^ 


special 


<-«►<* 


commonly, usually 


»/S 


guava (m) 


fcM* 


to snow 


M 


spring (0 



387 



It/ 

UgUf 



V 



enough, sufficient b*f (J>~ ) to blossom, bloom 

summer (f) (m)j* *^(f) U*£ autumn; fall 

watennelon (m) &>J) tree (m) 

festival (m) % leaf (m) 

festival in which sisters {J U thread tied by sisters on 



express love for their 



brothers (m) 



wrist (f) 

promise, vow (m) 
entire life 



J? 



safeguard; protection(f) fc> i ~gr 



state, condition (f) 



*f 



the wrist of their brothers 

on the day of Rakhsha 

bandan (f) 

beloved (m) 

to be separated 

simile (f) 

to compare 

poets (plural of ^l?*)(m) 



Reading Passage Two 



368 









\^mtj> 






tr*A, 








Glossary 




J/c^ 


forecast (f) 


t*t £)&! & 


the possibility of x to 


t 


sky, horizon (m) 




happen 


yj? cM 


partly 


£J.AfpifJ£ 


temperature (m) 


jA 


percent 


c<A/ 


humidity (f) 


JTm 


cloudy 


^1 it> 


sunrise (m) 


\$P£M 


drizzle (f) 


^w 


sunset (m) 



Reading Passage Three 



389 



Glossary 



M 


area, region 


(m) 


wit 

• — 


rare 


ji 


the Deccan plateau (m) ^&\-s\f 


museum (m) 


t* 


old, ancient 




jjb 


uncommon, rare 


o-jp 


cultural 




~i**1 


archaeological objects 


^ 


educational 




Osi 


priceless 


'// 


center (m.) 




J7 


treasure (m) 


Sf 


shared, composite 


$A 


foreign (m/£) 


*c# 


culture (f) 




Ur 


tourist (m/f) 


,jjf 


cradle (m) 




J* 


some, few 


6MJ 


shopping (0 










Reading Passage Four 








■ 







y 






390 






Mat? iff £s f^j ^\*£ e. 
*J& -LJ J f£{$« r *\*t$0 <&f3i jfl^V&cfc Jp j& fy fob/ (1 



391 



#4> 

(search glossary below for answer) 





Glossary 




h/* 


to smile 


tffc 


(respected) woman 


^y 


samosa (m) 


t 


wife (respected) worn 


efc* 


host(m/f) 


*jf 


to worry 


oW 


guest (ra/f) 


H 


complete 


-*/ 


trust, confidence (m) 


e? 


severe, hard 


*** 


successful 


*r 


sin (m) 


&* 


success (f) 


Ui 


prayer (0 


fc*e% 


to worry 


ivji 


to be accepted 


r^^ 


land of eternity 


& y 


to ask a favor; to pray 


t^ ^ 


to depart 


* 


riddle® 


ti^y 


to get an opportunity 


r> 


tail(f) 


^ 


joke (m) 


4* 


coin (m) 


t/ 


to fill 


5* 


crown (m) 


• 


repentance (f) 


7^ 


peacock (m) 


u/ 


to be astonished 







392 



Reading Passage Five 

:^0 iTi-fe J*/* 



Glossary 



& 


mmm 

royal 




according to taste 


&p-r> 


dining cloth* (m) 


%// 


curry leaves (m) 


# 


potato (m) 


k**U 


coriander (m) 


tf/A 


cabbage (f) 


fcfe* 


to peel 


<ffj4 


cauliflower (f) 


,/ 


piece (m) 


*fi 


recipe (f) 




thin, fine, delicate 




things; ingredients (£) 


tor 


to cut 


JJ* 


quantity (m) 


ju/ 


skillet; frying pan (f) 



393 



w 


red 


fcT 


to fry 


JO 


tomato (m) 


(hi 


almond (m) 


& 


cup(f) 


iM 


brown, almond-colored 


&- 


oil (m) 


k"-> 


slow, simmer 


J'jji 


ginger (m) 


&r 


fire, flame (f) 


^ 


garlic (m) 


tf 


to melt, soften 


iWff 


mixture of spices (m) 


j* 


dry 


lU 


tumeric (f) 


iM 


stove (m) 


J? 


salt(m) 


• 


decoration {f) 


h/, 


pepper (f) 


tL/Jy 


to eat with relish 



*a sheet spread on the floor on which various dishes are placed. Traditionally, before the 
introduction of dining tables, family members and guests sat around this sheet as they partook of 
the meal. 



Reading Passage Six 



Jjr P&tfi iJiJ tif^ ' Jt<jJ*£ £/*-kJ./ tzslr^f/jl* BJtri£&-i/} 



^>.j re b l„c_ ^ l& * -ft (^ 

ft&'Kt OF* dftfh J)\s dA Ji M0# k? '*- U*?* -f-dW c- 
/Ji-*L Utf^ »JQb fu'Out 2J, V»j f $*/*&* i at ZJ*S 



394 






Glossary 



■* 


fresh 


t^U 


representative (m/f) 


A 


international 


jj 


delegation (m) 


^J./ta^t' 


please listen 


bU/- 


head, leader <m/f) 


r- 


Egypt (m) 


«*tt 


meeting (f) 


tjn 


tour, trip, visit (m) 


i£Hj3*£ 


during 


W ojjj 


to tour, visit 


w* 


West 


*s0\A> 


capital city (m) 


Jv«^ 


issue/issues <m) 


t/jf 


Cairo (m) 


(5»k*l 


unaware/ignorant 


^ 


Palestine (m) 


-iy* 


furthermore 


J\/<JL 


country/countries (m) 


J*if 


right/rights (m) 


ih&> 


Middle East 


C«*> 


especially 


bTi 


peace (m) 


&i 


destruction, violation(f) 


t/,% 


to establish 


/TV 


Pyramids of Egypt (m) 


\$J*>t> 


terrorism (f) 


1*0 


Syria (m) 


tJUwiU 


clearly, emphatically 


enJ 


Jordan (m) 


i-iiii *jai 


word/ words (m) 


iSui 


human 



395 



Reading Passage Seven 

-i4 &So$i \figtfjl2h$ji if- cS 





Glossary 






tJfnh 


The United Nations 


>jijf 




as soon as possible 


J/ 


disease, epidemic (m) 


!;.«• >\?j 


if* 


X to be invented 


tt arp 


to bring x under 
control 


LJj 




opinion (f) 


tfj 


to solve 


(*•*• 

P 




organ ization(f) 


Jlf ,J;b 


exchange of ideas 


tM 




institution (m) 


(f\% 


preventive, protective 


t/jUTf 


«^x 


to agree with x 


A 


vaccination (m) 









Note on the Calendar 



In most of the Urdu-speaking world, one encounters two calendars: the Islamic lunar or hijrii 
calendar, and the Gregorian, Common Era one, called isavii. Dates are written from right to left, 
with the day first (at times followed by / sign), the month second, and the year third. The year is 



396 



usually written over the __ i _^ sign which stand for the Arabic word for year, "sana" This sign 
is followed either by j> (the sign for Islamic hijrii calendar) or p (the sign for the Gregorian 
isavii calendar). All months are masculine in gender. 



Rajab 


• 


Muharram 


r/- 1 


Sha'abaan 


(jit**-* 


Sqfar 


rj 


Ramzaan/Ramdhaan 


CJU-V-I 


RabiV ul-awwal 


i)Mt&j-r 


Shawwal 


J# J* 


Rabii 'us-saanii 


3*8^ 


2uu'l qadaa(Zii qaad) 


I 


Jamaadii ul-awwal 


JjUI i/jU-6 


Zuu'l hijjaa(Ziilhijj) 


<fa \Sdjj\aUe 


Jamaadii us-saanii 


i&tfteJi 




&$** 




July 


&u 


January 


tfjyi 


August 


+A 


February 


&>} 


September 


J? 


March 


M 


October 


sji 


April 


& 


November 


Jtt 


May 


it 


December 


s> 


June 


£)* 



Sample dates: 
9th Shawwal, 1388 Hijri » W AjN J& * I Oth January 1968 C.E. t WQ (&#<* 



397 



Urdu - English Glossary 



398 



now wl 

father (m) 

you - formal \ — - 1 



sister (0 



one's own 



these days, nowadays 



newspaper (rn) 

to perform; to accomplish; to pay 



IT 



r 

r 



your (formal) lyT / % ^ 



this much \f\ 

to pick up Cl^' 

to wake up, rise IX S 

today &' 

permission (f) ^/J\f[ 

give permission to leave (got to run) ^J- J t^Jv[ 



JV 



pickles (m) M 

good l# 



^1 

fc/w 



greetings, hello, hi ^Jtf ' <// V ,J 

actor (m) '&' 



actress (f) •■> 



tfbf 



399 



human being, man, person (m) rf /[ 



half 

in this direction 

in that direction 



rest (m) 
to rest 



intention (m) a i 



to fly; to cause to fly Mfjf 

independence, freedom (f) \Jy\j\ 

in this duration [£ &JM \J\ 

therefore ^} r-( 

use (m) Jt«>| 

to use kfj\S>t 

to use x tfjii>ltfx 

student (m/f) \JJ)¥**\ 

noble name (m) (formal Urdu) J/ 5 f\ 

sky(m) ^f 

principle (m) JjMj 

generally, often; most; many 

although ^J\ 



r 



although zjf 

cupboard, cabinet (f) (JsUt 



400 



owl; fool; stupid (m/f) f\ 

potato (m) ^1 

mango (rn) /* i 

mother (f) (J# 

test, trial, examination (m) d&l 

America (m) <-£/*' 

American C^*/*' / l£ /' 

peace , safety (m ) {•/ / 

mother (f) {ft 

rich ^ 



to come 



tr 



waiting, expectation (m) J\aS\ 

to wait for x tJ Jk?\ Ox 

arrangement (m) f* IE-'* ! 

death (lit. transfer) (m) Jl^ ! 

to die (for x to die) fcifl JlP' tSx 

inside »*' 

darkness (m) */££ ' 

human being (m) C'U' J 

tears (m) J^ ' 

God willing (may God will that) M t&l 

his, her (formal) t# ' I % c" 

401 



** ftf/fetf 

eye(f) / T 

English (adj.) \$y/\ 

English (the language) (jyj*l 

England (m) gjgjgj 

English (adj.) Jpjfij 



and 



Iranian 



once 



finger (0 ^/ 

vagabond, wanderer (m/f) ^^ f 

voice, sound, noise (f) j^f 
above 






more, additional «j 

offspring, children (f) ^f 

Iran(m) ^| y( 



4^ 



father (m) LI 

father (m) (, 



7 



speech, word; thing (abstract); matter; affair (f) ,-^1 

to speak, to talk, converse \;J ^ I 



402 



sister (f) 

rain(f) J VI 

to rain k* t/VL 

market, bazaar (m) -/'J I 



garden (m) 
hair (m) 

absolutely, completely 



worse 



worst 
to change 



bad, evil, wicked 

to be offended, to feel insulted 






arm, embrace (f) y*^t 

cook{m) 1% J Q 

out, outside y^t 

to play (an instrument) tU* 



childhood (m) C£* 

child (m) ^ 

fever; wrath; steam (m) fir 



\>* 



Wednesday (m) &<*i 






Britain (m) 4^^ 

snow/ice (f) •— 9 ^ 



403 



Jt 



rice w/ spicy meat or vegetables (f) (JlX 

big (jj 

grown up, elder person (m/f) ^*j / (*• 

to cause to increase; to enlarge (transitive) tU-fc 

to increase, to grow, to extend (intransitive) b*% 

revered person, respected elder ^JjS( 

enough! \tj* 

without M (£**) 

to call, invite tyg 

nightingale (f) Jr 
cat (f) 

to make, to build, to create fcfc; 
Bangladesh (m) 

to be made, built, created t* 

to p lay the role of x \fi x 

to cause to be built; constructed with (used with tyjfi 

Zander) 

elderly (adj.); elderly person (m) UJi 

brave, courageous /fy 

very C^C 

better f£ 

best t^ft 



%, - 



404 



sister (f) ^ 

helpless C^^~ 

helplessness (0 0*£~ 

daughter (f) {£• 

to sit l>£ 
middle 



to flee, to run away from 
brother (m) 



hunger (f) 



poor thing/ fellow (rrt/f) \jj\g I tM 

to sell fcgj 

fed up jij% 

scores of Ul&f 

useless, unemployed J6s, 

sick, ill (adj.); sick person (m/f) A& 

sickness, illness (f) \j A& 

wife(f) (i^ 

India (m) CwUj 

heavy U>l^ 






ghost (m) C^A 

J* 



405 



to forget $££ 

also, too ip 

to send faff 

crowd (f) >j£ 



papad (crispy appetizers) (m) > t 

toilet, excrement, stool (m) ^&l 

Pakistan (m) \JC^i 

Pakistani Jfc^i 



crazy, mad, insane 



A 



to raise, nourish; maintain; to protect IV L 

to find tl 

t 
• 

water (m) $1 

father (m) {? 

pants, trousers (f) ^.r? 

wife (f) (j* 

address; hint, clue, trace (m) Q 

to come to know; to find out #£ Q 

husband (m) (J* 

last, past, previous; back, latter (ffr 

on ^ 

406 



to reach 
to ask 



old (thing) tU 

day before yesterday; day after tomorrow 0^^ 

family (m) A%£ 

worried ld%4 

distress, misery, anxiety (f) ^7? 

Premchand - prominent author of Urdu-Hindi >§p-/ 

narrative prose, died 1936 
studies, education (f) 
to study, to read 
pleasing (adjective); choice, preference (f) >^r 

favorite Mz-^y 









to cook 

to catch, apprehend 

moment (m) 

bed(m) 

fan; ventilator (m) 

mountain, hill (m) 

to recognize; to know; to perceive ; to discern v" jjy 



H 



Hi 



quarter less than (after whole number) U% 

love (m) -? 



407 



to love t/ y ^ 
onion (f) ji 

thirst (f) ,rV 
cup(f) ^ 

stomach (m) ^a^ 



to be born 



Monday (m) 



to drink 



X 



t*Ms 



leg(m) ^5 



A 



money, cash, wealth; coin (m) _^* / U* 

•** ••* 

urine (m) w^l^i 

• •»• 

yellow j^ 



«l 



again y^ 

yet, still ^ fi 

see you soon (lit. we will meet again) ££* A 

fruit (m) (J% 

fautseller<m/f) Jlj J$ / \)h J? 
flower (m) \j!& 



to spread fci^ 

to throw 



* 

d 



40S 



star(rn) [jf* 

date, history (f) gjfr 

historical (Jvt* 

so that Jfy 

gift(m) J? 

throne (m) C^" 

to sit down (formal Urdu) tS*JkJLf* 

to enter (formal Urdu) tU *J%J$ 

picture, photograph (f) yj^ 

praise (f) w3 t/*' 

to praise x tJ wj«/^u 

details, explanation; analysis (f) (>* 

speech, recital; statement (f) y ? 

to give a speech Cy y jp 



until 



J 



4 



you - informal r 

-i 
body (m) ^T 

to bother fcy »J? 

you - least formal / 

to break (transitive) tj? 



409 



ready ,r> 



to swim 



*I 



swift, quick; hot (spicy), fiery, shaip & 

festival (m) A p 

tiredness (f) ^r 

some, few; scanty, little; less \j& 



piece, morsel (m) 




J 


hat(0 




6J 


to break (intransitive) 




0'/ 


to wait; to stop; to stay 




tj* 


cold (adjective) 




iM 


cold (noun, f) 




& 


fine, good, exactly 






to become well 




tU- tt ^ 



410 



place, vacancy (f) 



b 



Japan (m) £)l\p 



*• 



Japanese (3lU 

r* 

cold (weather) (m) Ijt 

to wake up, rise fc^V 

life, soul; sweetheart; energy (f) £/^ 

to go tl^ 

to know b-U 

• 

animal (m) v^U 

when w^ 

germs (m) (£L? 

celebration (m) £/* 



J? 



gentleman, sir, mister (m) u^C> 

Friday (m) &?' 

Thursday (f) &A f* 

democracy (0 *2< J$* 

answer (m) w^-'i? 

young (adj.); youth (m/f) \z)\£ 

* 

youthfulness, youth (f) (jiiJ 

shoe(m) t f- 

411 



pair, couple (f) l£jj£ 

lie(m) ^^ 

to He |jjy ^>£ 

no, not j/ J. 



<4* 

to live, to be alive far 

life partner <m/f) \s £}£"• 

clever, cunning, sly ^f\f ^ 

moon (m) j (^ 

moonlight (f) J^ 

rice (pi. m.) Jj^ 

tea(f) £_(, 

shut up; be quiet yij ^£ 

to steal f|^ 

200 (m) J^\f-$ 

to climb fcjȣ 

to drive fc[|^ 

to come along, to go along, to set out, to walk l^£ 

spoon; sycophant (colloquial) (m) ^ 

wound; injury (f) ^j£ 

412 



theft (i) <£,£ 

thief(m) jj£ 



holiday, vacation (f) 
knife (t) 

small 



L 



condition, state (m) 

condition (f) 

action, deed; mischief; movement (f) 

beautiful 



to scream, yell 

thing (f) £ 

China (m) £fjf 

Chinese (Jjf 

sugar (0 (jf 



^ 



student (Hindi) (m/f) J'l/ 

umbrella; canopy (f) is/* 









truth (0 *^" 

government (f) ^S-^* J* 



413 



to govern tfiZsfi 

henna (f) j*> 



• 



special ^f£ 

empty j£ 

quiet, silent (^V U 

family (m) g0j*g 

• 

news (0 ^ 

to finish, to end, conclude (transitive) %y f 

to finish, to end, conclude (intransitive) t>T f 

goodbye (lit. God be your protector) &\# \£ 

God willing (may God wil! that) ( J) ^ f \£ 

God forbid >•(/ £ ij£ 



God forbid (may God not will that) tL~J £ \j& 

service (f) &S Mr 

bad w l> 

fault, blemish (0 \$\7 

expenditure, expense (m) fa/ 

to spend, to expend (transitive) \ZJ fyS 

to be spent, expended (intransitive) ts? fe7 

to buy t^7 

414 



letter (m) Ja> 

dangerous Ut/^ 

dream (m) w'i^ 



*-, *• 



beautiful iStJtrlf 

self (reflexive); oneself )y 

happy {J"P 

happiness (0 {f? 

blood (m) &f 

thought, idea, opinion (m) C/J^ 



grandfather (paternal) hb 

grandmother (paternal) {Jsh 

lentils (f) Jw 

tooth (m) ^h 

pain (m) 3 J) 

door(m) wMfJ* 

river (m) La* 



to have diarrhea v I d 

signature (m) J^ J 

enemy (m/f) <yi 

invitation; feast; party (f) hi'^i 

415 



to invite x 



to have a party for x 



office (m) 
shop, store (f) 

shopkeeper/store owner 



heart (m) 

interest (interesting) (f) 

bridegroom (m) 

bride (f) 

brain, mind, intellect (m) 

day (m) 

world (f) 

medicine (f) 

afternoon (f) 

milk (m) 

far 

time (period of); period (m) 

during this time/period 
friend (m/f) 
friendship (f) 
second, another 
both 



* 

CM 

/&» 

Jh 
\fi fSJlM l/I 

(^ 
(^ 



416 



to repeat, double, fold 



yogurt (m) 



sister (f) 



late, a long while; a long period of time, 



interval; lateness (f) 



to delay, to be a long time, to come late 



to taJce care of x 



to sec 



to give 



wall (f) 



mad, ecstatic 



sunshine, heat of sun (f) 



pomp and gusto (f) 



to wash 



mail (0 

post office (m) 

doctof (m/f) 

to pour, to place, to put 

box (m) 



j 



fcUi 

(Jo 



<Z- Si 



s 

i 

If) 









417 



fear(m) A 

to fear fe/j 

♦ h 

J - &J 

Dacca (m) Jlf» ) 

little Just; please (with r form imperatives) 'yj 

night (f) JjJj 

king (m) ^J 

road (m) 2^'J 

pleased; contented; agreed (J 'J 

to agree upon x t^" {j h S x 

to be pleased with x tsi {f\j C- x 

melody (f) Jljf(m)Uh 

cheeks, countenance (m) J\*?J 

juice, nectar (m) \J J 

receipt (f) -±^ 

relationship / connection (m) %*'£ 

family, relatives (m) -4* P* V 

Ramadan, Muslim holy month (m) (jJv** J 



to depart, to set out \/tf ^h 



J 



418 



rupee (Indian/ Pakistani currency) (m) 
bread (f) 
Russia (m) 

Russian 

to stop, to prevent 

to cry 

to stay, to live 
train (f) 



S» 



\5J 



fa 

If,; 

Uj 



♦ 

J 



cold (illness) (m) 

time, age; world; fortune (m) 

Iand<f) 

landlord (m) 

life(f) 

living, alive 

long live 

a tot, very much 



A3 



</ 



beloved, sweetheart (m) 



whole, entire, all; the whole 






419 



half (with whole numeral) £-As 

mother-in-law (f) \J\s 

birthday (f) 9J7 \s 

curry (m) O If 

barrage, luggage, goods (m) (Jit* 



to be able to, can 
Sikh 



uV 



breath (0 

a!l y* 

vegetable (f) tJyV 

vegetarian (rn/f) ./r v^* 

dream (m) l^T 

to tease, to annoy, lo torment tt > 

true (adj.); truth (m) iy 

to speak the truth W fa 

head (m) f 

cold (noun, f) if*/ 

cheap P""* 

father-in-law (m) /"" 

journey (m) f 



to make a journey, travel 

white JP* 



£ 

£ 



420 



todiy fcU^ 

greetings to a Muslim (reply in parentheses) Cfli^ C^ i)r^ ffc 

^faft*^ 

to explain, to cause to understand t\J[ 

to understand £a? 

to cause to listen, to tell, to narrate Cfc" 

orange (m) \/^ 

beautiful jjj~- 



marble (m) y*y* 



orange (m) 



S- 



<? 



to listen t^" 

hundred y 

one and a quarter; quarter more (after number) *y 

question (m) \j\y 

to think k>y 

to dry (intransitive) &» jr 

to sleep by 
girlfriend (for girls) (f) 
from 
before 
apple (m) 



cT 






421 



stroll, walk, tour, excursion (f) /£ 



to stroll, to take a walk, to tour 

hundreds of 



poet(ra) 
vegetarian (m/f) 






service (f) '** 

w 

wedding (0 tf& 

evening (f) [ V* 

splendid, stately, grand >'**' lr 



prince (m) •*£$? 

perhaps -6^ 

auspicious name (m) (formal Hindi) (*& jz**"^ 

alcohol, wine(0 V 1 /" 

mischief(f) CW*/* 

sherbet (beverage) (m) ^< j f 

to be shy, reticent C*>r 

ashamed, bashful, modest *&s 

to be ashamed, bashful, modest fc# o-^X 

mischievious / f 

honorable, noble "—5; / 

422 



to start, to begin (transitive) tJ w*s 

to start, to begin (intransitive) tyi £/j jr 

chess (f) &/^ 



thanks (m) 



morning (f) 



c^ 



ft 



poetry; a couplet, a verse (m) /*"* 



J 



£. 



noise, uproar, disturbance (m) Jr 

hobby/ hobbies (m) QP 

husband (m) jtf' 
town , city (m) jf 

emperor (m) slP^"" 



gentleman, sir, mister <— . *> U* 

clean ijU 






health (0 ^ 

healthy J> *>& 

president (m/f) J J** 



Sufi - a Mus lim mystic (m) r 



423 






definitely, sure &s 

necessity; need (f) &J3/ 

necessity, need for x <s*jf/*\$ x 

k 

student (m/f) /*£ ^It 

temperament, health (f) us-*^* 

manner, style (f) £/x 

storm (m) (if 6^ 



6 



habituated; accustomed (JjU 

to be habituated/used to/accustomed to X tj? y^k P 

lover (m) (j?l* 

being a lover (0 C/ * 

wonders (pi.) ^r^f 

museum (m) ^£ V^ 

wonder (m) ^jff 

wonderful, surprising, strange <_. %< 

court (f) u^L* 



424 



Arabic (f) Jj/ 

dear, precious, beloved (m/f) y*f 

love (m) (jr* 

great <<; 

cure (m) £,0f 

besides, moreover, in addition to w()£ i~ 

buildmg(f) ^vU? 

age (f) / 

woman (f) \Z*jf 

festival - Muslim (f) Ar? 

s 

Christian i}[^f 



I 



poor person (m/f) *T / ^-^ 

poverty (f) l^/ 

ghazal (love poem) (f) (J_^ 

bathroom (m) $i \j^ 

to bathe tJ yr 

slave (m) f$ 

mistake, error (0 

sorrow (m) C 

sorrowful *-Jt^ 



425 



consideration, deep thought (m) jf 

to consider thoughtfully tJjf 

to take x into consideration %J jf / 



9* 





X 

v. 



leisure, free time (f) \2s* ? 

worry (0 A 

t 

ski 1 1, art, craft (m) ^ 

s 

artist (m) J& 

army(f) £,y 

• 
to dial the phone t(J^ i^)f 

to call x on the phone ^/ \*jf y x 

decision (m) J^ 



capable, able, skillful (jtl? 

worthy of (with oblique infinitive) iJJS £~ 

carpet (f) ^1$ 

grave, tomb (f) j} 
oath(f) 

to swear by x fcU) ** (J j 

queue, line (f) ^|£j 



f 



426 



fort (m) „aJJ 

pen (m/f) f 

shirt (f) fj^v 

qawwali - spiritual-mystical song recited by (jfy 

Muslim mystics (f) 

prison, jail (m) >$*j£ 

prisoner (m/f) {J>U 

M 

price, cost (f) ^-^f 



when? 



J 



to bite, to cut l?t> 

kohl, coliyrium (m) \j* % 

would that \Jv 

enough, sufficient, adequate (3 

black HIT 

work, job (m) f*D 

to work ty r*p 

successful ^k*'' 

success (f) (Jl'fc' 

ear(m) C^^ 

fork; thorn (m) fro 



**y 



427 



since when? ?£-_. ^^f 

sometimes i $• 

occasionally; now and then /p J^ 

clothes (m) x J-' 

— /* 

book (f) ^(^ 

dog (m) (f 

how much, how many? LP / c£ / t^ 



less 

to reduce 

to be reduced 



trash (m) I 

something, anything j? 

nothing jg ^ 

fare, rent (m) a£ 

chair (f) tff 

to do fy 

ten millions; crore /jy* 

millionaire (m/f) {J Ji^' 

millions of \JiJiJ 

for what reason, why? ?^L </ 

farmer, peasant (m) iJt-C 

tomorrow, yesterd ay (m) j^P 






428 



comb(f) 

to comb 
slave girl (f) 
effort (*) 



room (m) 

to try £/ \J*i 

who? ?c// 

someone; anyone (noun, m.); some, any; (J Jr 

approximately (adj). 

no one; nobody LA' Of 

that, which, who (rel. pronoun and conjunction) J 



where? 

from where? 

story (f) 

to say, to speak (with ^-) 

to call (something a name) (with 



AC 



in front of, across, facing 

inside 

on top of 

instead of LJf. {ft£ 



in return for x; instead of x 
regarding 






429 



out, outside A £__ 

after ^ £\ 

without M (^ ) 

near Q\£ 

behind g? £ 

with J\s £ 

in front of, across, facing £~l' JL- 



for the sake of, for, in order to £* £ 

near jfyj £ 

under £_ £_ 

kilogram j& 

because of *~ ^>j y 

several; some; a few $ 

what? *\f 

what sort of, what kind of, how? *? £-. I lf~ / Ur 

banana (m) ll/ 

why? for what reason? ? fJj£ 

because ,J*J£ 



430 



to eat 
food (m) 
to cough 

cough (f) 
window {f) 
athlete, player (m/f) 



to open 

to lose (misplace something) 

agricultural field (in) 

to play 



/ 



ti/ 
ti/ 

J/ 

toy(m) tJ? 

i/ 



J 






car(f) 

to drive a car 
song (m) 
to sing 
village (m) 
cow(f) ^ 






hot p 



431 



heal, hot weather (f) (Jy 

to fall down fry 



J 



request (f) tfjj 

to spend time, to pass tjy 

filth (f) Jjf 

witness (m/f) 9 \j 



meat (m) ^ 

meat eater (m/f) j^ ^^- 

meat curry (m) <yV tf &/J 

round, circular; a circle \Jy 

song(m) ^ 

house (m) y* 

clock/ watch (f) (iy* 

hour(m) (J2* 

horse (m) /yjp 



answerless, speechless; unequalled, matchless w'i£ li 

hundred thousand &[) 

hundreds of thousands of (J-' ^ 



432 



red Jl) 

to bring CU 

boy (m) &/ 

girl(f) V$ 

to fight x LV £^ 

yogurt drtnk (f) V 

to write wr > 

tall ^ 

people, folk (m) J> ^ 

lemon/ lime (m) U-^- 

totake W 



r 



mother (f) tH» 

mother (f) W» 

to hit M 

to be convinced, to Listen, to obey v- 1 

sweets (f) $& 
helpless ^** 

helplessness (i) iS-*& 
criminal (m) [ f 



mosquito; insect (m) 



433 



love(f) ^ 

to love $S ,*£ 

lover (m) ^ ^£ 

hard work (f) ^^^ 

to do hard work %J CJ* 

hard working pr 

help(f> ^ 

to help x fc/^X* tfx 

joke, wit; laste (m) jjjj 

to tease, to make fun of x ft Jf Jj^ lf K 

Pepper (t) £,^ 

• 

chicken (f) $ i 

chicken curry (i) <yV ^ {$ } 

to die fc/ 

disposition, health (m) £,( y» 

how are you? (formal) **>„/" (•/' yt 

grave, tomb, shrine of a Sufi holy man (m) Jj» 

to enjoy fc/ \f 

delicious j\j, > 

traveller (m/f) i^J* 

intoxicating >&*•* 

mosque (f) jf* 

434 



to smile t'y^ 

Muslim | 

Muslim C^ 

difficult U^ 

famous J ** 

spices (m) UU'/JU' 

busy .J^^ 

essay, composition (m) 
purpose, intent; motive (m) 
forgive/ excuse me 
examination (medical), investigation (m) *<?** 

to have something examined (medically) 
to know 

facts, information (f) 
Mughal - dynasty that ruled India from the 1 6th 

to the 19th century 
poverty (f) 
useful/ profitable 

place (m) (plural) (*A&0 f$> 

mausoleum (m) 
house (m) 
landlord (m) 

435 






J* 



ta*. 









but, however J> 

country (m) lm jfc. 

to meet ^U 



possible 



Tuesday (m) 



j? 



to celebrate, commemorate 1 t"* 

appropriate *— ~*fc> 

• t 

temple (m) jjy 



f 



& 



mouth, face (m) ^*tif* 

patient (m) J%f 

fat tV 

season (m) \3* 

Mahabharata - Indian epic &j\Ji 1/ 

Maharashtra (m) lp*ijKtf 



queen, empress (f) (3'>t/ 

thanks (f) (lit. kindness) L>L«f 

please, kindly (with w I forms) <L- > (3^/^ / ^^- liL/ 

guest (m/f) gjtf* 

henna (f) J^ 

expensive &/ 

sweet 

my f^ 

43e 



Mirabai - a 16th century poetess famous for her 



&U 



devotional songs to the Hindu deity Krishna 
table (f) 
minaret (m) 
I 
in 






U 



to dance 



angry; displeased; upset 



to be/ become angry; upset 



nose(f) 
name (m) 



grandfather (maternal) 



grandmother (maternal) 



narcissus (f) 



near 



flu(m) 

sign, momento, souvenir (m/f) 



song (m) 



to come out, to arise; to depart 
Muslim ritual prayers (f> 



Ji 

r 6 
tt; 

J/ 

&£ i iM 
J 



437 



to recite namaz fc*y >U 



lemon/ lime (m) 
salt(m) 
servant (m) 
job, work (0 



no, not 



to return, come back 
to go back, return 



prime minister (m/f) 
homeland (m) 






to bathe tl/ 

j 



blue Itf" 






father <m) J*t 

mother (f) 9jff 

parents (m) cC^ 9 

reason (f) <?> 

to work out, to exercise f J U4 J * 

otherwise £■*) 

weight (m) ij^ 

minister (government) (m) S„h 






438 



time (m) sZ^i 



lawyer, agent (m/f) 



hospital (m) 



^ 



that, those M 

they g f w 

he/ she ^ I ftj 

there \j\i 



hand (m) j£ |> 

to lose (a battle, contest, game, etc.) %J^ 

every yT 

every day t^^ f t 

every day i3W yj 

every year {Jv* A 

every month ^f /I 

• 

every week 2M Ji 

thousand JJj 

thousands of O iJ *A 



JQ? 



* 



Saturday; week (m) XH 

plow (m) Ca 

we (polite fonn: I) r* 



439 



Hindu %jty 

India (m) \J^iM 

Indian $C*)M 

to cause to laugh tU 1 

to laugh t^ 

air, wind (f) \& 

aerial Qifc 

airport (m) ijl (Jl^ 



air pollution (f) 



airplane (m) J^j J)ji 

intelligent, clever j\f* 3% 



for x to remember 
that is to say, i.e. 



\S 



L 
memory, remembrance (0 )l 

to remember fc ' jL / £«/ A 



tt 



university (f) C^-^i 

this, these 



here (^L< 









Jew \jiy& 

440 



English-Urdu Glossary 



441 



A 

able (JbG* 

tO be able tO ; Can (always preceded by stem of another verb) 



absolutely, completely 
action (f) 



aerial 



after 



age(f) 
agent (m/f) 



agricultural field (m) 






t£ 



above /)S 



7 



*/7 



actor (m) J&& 

actress (f) wtfb' 

in addition to ff.*lrJZ— 

additional (more) vjl 
address (m) 



Jus 



affair (f) c^t 



to be affronted Kfc L* 



» 



^r 



afternoon (f) J& $ J 

again, then yHt 






• 
to agree upon x ttf \j^-i * 



*J 



442 



air(£) feft 

air pollution (0 if *$ W* 



angry 



animal (m) 
to annoy 



answer (m) 
any (adj.) 
anyone/someone 
anything 
apple (m) 



t 



airplane (m) %$$& 

airport (m) 8' &?* 

• ♦ 
alive 9>^ 

all 4*** 

all (whole) 'A* 

4> 



also, too 

although 

America (m) 

American C/*/'/(£/ J 



to be/ become angiy tit (^TUC 






another '/"■ 



ij 



J/ 
J/ 



443 



appropriate; suitable ^ |^> 

approximately (J// C- 5^ 

Arabic (f) Jy- 

arm, embrace (f) ^L 

armyffl £,y 

arrangement (m) /* U£' j 

art(m) ^ 



ashamed 



ask 
athlete/player (m/f) 



>^>/ 



to be ashamed Ctf o^y-' 






bad, evil \x 

to feel bad, to feel insulted £ I \jl 

bad (rotten) ^Ji7 

baggage (m) tfWs 

banana (m) V£ 

Bangladesh (m) U~)J&: 

bashful *•&$/' 

to be bashful tji bXt/ 



444 



to bathe IV / tAr 

beautiful i&Tj J^jr^f/Jjy 



because 



bed(m) 

before 

to begin (transitive) 



to bite; to cut 
black 



book(-f) 



M 



because of c^-* ^i 



*4 



4 
tfv>> 

to begin (intransitive) Ctf s /^ 

behind ^J Zl 

to believe vt 

beloved, sweetheart (m) Cr U" 

besides UK <£ 

best C^/ 1 ^ 

better ,/# 

big fe 

birthday (f) •V,l< 



or 

US' 



blood (m) d? 

blue f 



body(m) C/ 



*r 



445 



to be born 



to bother 



to have x built 



ttfiM 



both <jy 



!J 



\SJb 



box(m) »$ 

boy(m) 

brain (m) £^ 

brave yjfjjg 

bread (f) Jjy 

to break (intransitive) 1?/ 

to break (transitive) %jj 

breath (m) U^ 

bride (f) LVJ /c ^j 

bridegroom (m) l^*^ 

to bring til 

Britain (m) +*&4 

s 

brother <m) (JU? 

building (f/m) C^/^yU? 

to be built (intransitive) H 

to build (transitive) tbs 

to cause to be built fcl>^ 



if* A 



busy ^>-^ 



446 



but, however J /^ft+ 

to buy t-fcv 7 

by, till iJT 



cabinet (f) (J-/Ul 

capable t£l5* 

to call (something a name; use with s ) C? 

to call x on the phone tJ &P 3 

to call / invite tic 

car(f) (j-/lf 

I* 



carpet (f) 

cat(f) 

to catch, apprehend 



to celebrate, commemorate C&* 

a-/ 



celebration (m) 

chair (0 

to change 

cheap 

cheeks; face (m) 

chess (f) 

chicken (f) 






447 



chicken curry (m) £/V %{$ / 
child (m) 2? 

childhood (m) <y$? 

children (f) j\j 9 i 

China (m) ^ 

Chinese [£f 



Christian 



comb(0 
to comb 
to come 



Jkf 



A 



city(m) j* 

clean ^JU 

clever i^/i) (? 

to climb t^yr 



c?y 



clock / watch (f) 

clothes (m) 

clue(m) 1^ 

cold (adjective) ' Jfc*' 

cold (noun, f> &*}{$) S 

cold (weather; winter) (rn) 0U/($ w^/* 

cold (illness) (m) r*|fi 






to come along, to go along with, to walk \P% 



448 



to come back fcf j£\ 9 

to come down, to descend tyf 

to come to know, to find out ty* f 

to come out, to depart, to set out fcifr 

cond ition (f) ^J \p 

condition, state (m) (JU 

• 

consideration; careful thought (m) jf 

to consider thoughtfully t<rjf 

to take x into consideration tJ jf S x 

to construct tb; 

to cause to be constructed ttyi 

to have x constructed tly: J x 

to be convinced, to obey, to believe (£ I 

cook(m) J^jsl 

to cook fjjj 

cost (f) tf^ 

cough (i) (/uT 

to cough t^W 

country (m) wU£ 

couple, pair (f) (Jy.£ 

a couplet (of poetry, m) f 

courageous yjL/ 

449 



Dacca (m) 



date; history (f) 



court (f) \z)\j6 

cow (f) !_$ 

m 

craft (m) (^T 

crazy, mad, insane \J t 

criminal (m) f k 

crowd (f) jj£* 

to cry ti> 

cunning *_J J U 

cup(0 (j^ 

cupboard (0 ifylA 

cure(m) ^05 

curry (m) O* U" 

to cut; to bite U6 



/UJ 



to dance C>t 

danger (m) 

dangerous 



jty* 



darkness (m) ^/£& 



daughter (f) $ 



450 



day(m) ^ / }jj 

day before yesterday ; day after tomorrow {Jys 

dear, precious, beloved y*f 

death (lit transfer) (m) J (S^l 

to d ie (for x to die) t yt JbV [ [& 

decision (m) J**? 

deed(0 c/> 

definitely, sure J3 'f 

to delay, to be a long time tj S > 

delicious -''-i^* 

democracy (0 C-C vn 

to depart, to set out tj? ^9 J 

to descend C-/I 

details, particulars; explanation; analysis (f) CA 

to dial the phone ttff (j|/ 

diarrhea (m) &s> 

to have diarrhea t ' CU-"J 

to die 6/ 
difficult 

to discern; to recognize v b£ 

disposition, health (m) fr'^ 

how are you? (formal) •—ft'/'' &J£ 

451 



^ 



distress, misery, anxiety (f) 



to do 



doctor (m/f) 

dog (m) 

door (m) 

to double; to repeat 

dream (m) 

to drink 

to drive 

to drive a car 
to dry (transitive) 
to dry (intransitive) 



t/ 



t£f*r4r 



* 



til? iSif 



ear (m) 
to eat 
effort (f) 
to try 
elderly (adj.); elderly person (m) 
to be em harassed 
emperor (m) 
empress (f) 



fc/tw 



452 



empty (j£ 

to end, conclude (transitive) ^,J /* 

to end, conclude (intransitive) t*7 r^ 

enemy (m/f) (•/ i 

England (m) \$S&\ 

English (adj.) Q&&tt 6'sS\ 

to enjoy is o/ 

to enlarge, to expand, to cause to spread tU'ij 

(transitive) 

to increase; to grow; to spread (intransitive) fc*# 

enough! \fj* 

a 

enough (sufficient); a lot {J o 

to enter (formal Urdu) fcU ^-f* 



English (nationality) 
English (the language) 



entire 



U> 



essay / composition (m) (^ 5* 
evening (f) flf 

every y? 

every day (m) Ck yT / SsJjt 

every month (m) &i?fi 

every week (m); every Saturday Z&l /I 

453 






expensive 



every year (m) 0^" /l 

evil, bad i^ 

exactly *J$ 

examination (test) (m) C^l£*f 

examination / investigation (medical, m) ,-> U> 

to have something examined (medically) \SJ ^ b> 

excrement (m) Z L? I 

to exercise t-/ C-/i-^ 

expenditure, expense (m) ^ 7 
to expend, to spend (transitive) 



ifbs 



to be expended, to be spent (intransitive) fc>? &J 7 



6V 



to explain, to cause to understand L'Uf 

to extend (intransitive) t**"3^ 

to extend, to expand (transitive) (causative) L'U'vC 
eye(f) 



J1 



, ._' 



face (m) ^-*/^» 

facts (f) ii-li^ 4 

to fell down 



a 



family (m) £/U*£ / M^ 



454 



famous jfC* 

fan; ventilator (m) U£ 

for jsS 

fare; rent (m) jf, 

km 

fanner (m) cJU{ 
fast, quick 5g? 

fat ts> 

father(m) U/wL/t/0/Jli 

father-in-law (m) /—*'' 

fault, blemish (f) (jl/ 

favorite 9J*J>L 
fear(m) A 

to fear tyj 

feast; party (f) c^J 

fed up >(£ 



festival (J) jS J (m) /^f /,4#" 

fever (m) J& 



filth (f) 



few \jf 

to fight t/* 



to fight x ty, 



X 



jv 



to find L'l 

T 



455 



to find out tyr Q 

fine J^ 
finger (f) 

to finish ty^P* 

to flee {/ty 

flower (m) {J9K 

flu(m) 0) Jf 

to fly t J\ 

to cause to fly tyjl 

food(m) tl/' 



fool (m) 

for the sake of, for, in order to ^L ^1 

to forget (jJ^C 

forgive / excuse rne )J ^\**/ £*£ w*l** 

fork; thorn (m) ^Y 

fort (m) ^S 

freedom (f) (JjUT 

free time (f) C^V 

Friday (m) ^jt^ 

friend (m/f) ^it-^ J 

friendship (f) (/'jj 

from tz^ 

456 



from where ^^ \J\J 

fruit (m) 



girlfriend (for girls) (f) 



fruitseller (m/0 [}b J% I Dh J^ 

G 

garden (m) £,t 

generally J I 

gentleman, sir, mister (m) ^> L> / w C> 

germs (m) fAZ 

to get, to obtain fci? (with f) 

ghazal (love poem) (f) \J'f 

ghost (m) JL>& 

gift(m) ^ 

girl (0 t$ 



<r 



to give tj;j 

give permission to leave (got to run) ££"* *£• JU-J 

to go fcU 

to go back tirijvb 

God forbid (May God not will that) 2"S? 1 \J> I (J) <L-Jt S& 

God willing (May God will that) (J%£~Jt&tJkt *$l 

good U*J/ 



457 



goodbye (lit, God be your protector) &9 U Sj& 

goods, luggage (m) C^LU' 

government (f) & y* 

to govern ty i^-^r^ 

grand Jj\? 

grandfather (maternal) tt 

grandfather (patema 1) f $ ) 

grandmother (maternal) (jfc 

grandmother (paternal) y )h 

grave (f) jg 

grave, tomb, shrine of a Sufi holy man (m) A)* 

great fC^ / p I 
greetings, hello, hi 2£7gT/ w^/J;' 
"Peace on you" [to a Muslim] (reply in (f*U> p j) f^ fit* 
parentheses) (f iM f^)^ f lM 

grown up, elder person (m/£) ijA I '% 

guest (m/f) \$\/C 

H 

habituated; accustomed ■** 

to be habituated/used to/accustomed to x t^ {J jW o x 



hair (m) 



a 



458 



half #)i /t»>T 

half (with whole numeral) <£lv U 

hand (m) jg L 

happiness (f) (J"£ 

happy \jf 

hard work (f) ^^ 

to work hard ^J C*& 

hard working fjp 

hat(f) t3y 

he/she ^/^ 

head (m) f 



health (f) 



healthy >i>*j^ 

heart (m) \Ji 

heat, hot weather (f) {J J 

heavy U-'^ 

hel P (f) J-4 

to help W)J> 

to help x t/ ;>i Ox 

helpless -^/L^ d~ 

helplessness (f) {$j£l if* tL- 

henna (f) (J^/fe 

459 



here 



Hindu 



hot 



ok. 



here (in this direction; hither) Pj\ 

hill; mountain (m) j[/ 



)'M 



Hind u devotional hymn (m) tf? 

hint, clue, trace; address (m) £ 

his / her (informal) &|/ ^ \J\ 

his / her (formal) #( / (f ^\ 

history; date (f) JjJC 

historical \S m JC 

to hit tVL 

hobby / hobbies (m) Qy- 

holiday, vacation (f) (J> 

homeland (m) ^Tj 

horse (m) \jj» 

hospital (m) Jl^T 



hot (spicy) jjf 

hour (m) \$0 

house (m) 
how much / how many? 



gnplV( 



human being (m) I*/U / ' 



460 



human being, man, person (m) {J 3 1 

hundreds of {)*$* / %fcx 

hundreds of thousands of \Jf* lj 

hunger (f) ^J f& 

husband (m) (J / j;y 



if 



in front of, across, facing 
in return for x 






if only /would that \J% 

in jt 






to increase (intransitive) t^i^ 

to increase (transitive) CU# 

independence (f) \j$j \ 
India (m) £)fr'9'X</ &j\ 

Indian ijfr's&i 

infonnation (f) *zXj** 
injury; wound (0 *~*% 

inside j£\ 



inside of j£ 



461 



\C 



instead of 

10 feel insulted / hurt 



intellect (m) LM 



intelligent, clever 



Iranian 



Japanese 
Jew 



j 






;[£*? 



intent; meaning (m) V"^ 

intention (m) 9^ A 

interest (f) CJ^=? 

interesting ^v 2 

intoxicating *~^** 

investigat ion (m) *£ w* 

invitation (f) (also party) ^^J 

to invite x fei ^^J /x 

Iran(m) C^'/! 



iJW 



jail(m) <$*<$ 

Japan (m) C^lf 



job/ work (m) <0 \$S*t(ix§{* 

joke(rn) (J'-£ 



462 



to tease; to make fun of x Cfyf \J\JL tfx 

journey (m) P* 

lo make a journey LV A" 

juice (rn) \Jj 

K 

king (m) ^4j 

knife (f) Jy& 

to know t- U 

• 

to know (facts) ttf {*$**{ tjf £ 



to know (skills) 



tr c/ x ) 



to know; to recognize t- l£« 

to come to know; to find out \Z~ \^ 

kohl, collyrium (m) u* t> 



land (f) C^ J 
landlord (m) j/l \jO I Jj&j 

last, past, previous, back, latter \^ 

late (adj); a long time; interval (f) S ) 

late (ad v) e- /) 

to be late ttf J> 

to come late C C— S) 



463 



lateness (f) (J/ ) 

to laugh t-£ 

to cause to laugh tU* 



lawyer (m/f) 



lemon, lime (m) 
lentils (f) 
less 



life, lifetime; age (f) 
life partner (m/f) 



little 



jf. 



leg(m) & 

leisure (0 *£**'} 

f 

letter (m) A? 

Iie(f) ki-J 52 

to lie Vl>. *L,F 

life (f) (/>'-// (m) eJ£ 

lift, soul, sweetheart, energy (f) C% 






line (queue) (f) >U5 

to listen fc 5 ^ 

to cause or make listen V&' 



(vV 



to live, to be alive fcjf 



464 



to live, to stay \^.j 

living B> -j 

long live & oXj 

a long while, a long period of time; late (f) y j 

to lose (misplace something) ts& 

to lose (a battle, contest, game) £A 

a lot, very much jlj 

,ove (m) &? /(f) ^ /(m)vL^ 

to love t/*&ttfj^ 

lover (f) ^ /(m) i^ 

lover (m) £?^ 

being a lover (f) \y\* 

luggage (m) (^tU 

M 

mad, ecstatic jfjfj 

to be made, built, created fc> 

Mahabharata- a famous Indian epic \H*j\jf\f 

Maharashtra (m) $ p*lj\rf 

mail(f) w/fj 

to maintain t^t 

to make, to bui Id, to create tfcj 



465 



mango (m) f* ' 



manner (f) 



melody 



millionaire (m/f) 
millions of 



h> 



marble (m) /*/* ?*^ 

market, bazaar (m) Jul 

matter; affair (f) C^l 

matiso leurn (rn) V* 

meaning (m) u^Jk^ 

meat (m) %z^y 

meat curry (m) (^ l" ^ Ct*^ J* 

meat eater (m/f) > -T *i^/ 

medicine (0 t}bj/fjJ 

to meet t^ ( with *=-) 



(f) y- »y/(m) wjly 



memento, souvenir (f) OlPV(m) ci£* 

memory, remembrance (f) Jt 

to remember x tJ & Vx/ C A L?x 
middle tip 

milk(m) *3*£ 






minaret (m) jfc** 

mind (m) C^i 



4S6 



minister (government) (m/f) 

Mirabai - a 16th century poetess famous for her 

devotional songs to the Hindu deity Krishna 
mischief (0 
mischief(f) 

mischicvious 

mistake (0 

to mock 

moment (rn) 

Monday (rn) 

money; cash; wealth; coin (m) 

moon (m) 

moonlight (f) 

more 

more, additional 

moreover 

morning (f) 

mosque (f) 

mosquito (m) 

most 

mother 

mother-in-law 



4» 



6i<x 



*Ss 






&ii JiJ, 

d 

A 

t 

A 

tl/UlnfiiijClJtjJI) 



467 



motive (m) 

mountain (m) 

mouth (m) 

movement (f) 

Mughal - dynasty that ruled India from the 1 6th 

to the 19th century 
museum (m) 
Muslim 
Muslim ritual prayer (f) 



my 



N 



name (m) 

noble name (formal Urdu) (m) 
auspicious name (formal Hindi) (m) 

narcissus; Nargis (f) 



to narrate 



near 



H 

J" 

/*% 
& 



near 



necessity; need (0 
necessity, need for x 



nectar /juice (m) 



ft 

ft J" 

J} 



J 



J 



468 



news (0 J! 

newspaper (m) >L>f 

night (0 &\j 



nightingaEe (f) 



nose (f) 

nothing 

now 

now and then 



oath-(f) 



occasionally 



o 



j* 



no, not \JS f [JZ (J. 

noble, honorable i— % J* 

nobody C^ J/ 

noise (f) )h\ 

noise, uproar, disturbance (m) y^ 






loobey £1 



// 



office (ra) /^ 

offspring (0 >IW 

often 

old (thing) $4 



469 



on 

on top of 

once 



y 

V 



our (also mine) 



owl (m) 



pain (m) 
pair, couple (f) 
Pakistan (m) 
Pakistani 
pants, trousers (f) 



AC 



oneself 

onion (f) 

only *-*/? 



% 



ti/ 



to open 

OT 

orange (m) 

otherwise ^ J9 






\j\a 



out, outside M*~ ' ' Ai 






papad (crispy appetizers) (m) -£* 

parents (m) ^L^ 9 



470 



party (f) (also invitation) d^^J 

to have a party for x ty &$*J (j : 

to pass, to spend time £y'y 

patient (m) l/V* I M& 

to pay ty I J* 

peace, safety (m) (y ' 

peasant (m) £l Ui 

r* 
JSi 



pen (m/f) 

people, folk (m) 

pepper <0 h /* 



to perceive l-Jgr 



to perform; to accomplish; to pay 



place, vacancy (f) 



to play 



if hi 



perhaps -J;l? 

permission (f) *ZsJ\fl 

to pick up, to lift *wl 

pickles (hot) (rn) -/ W 

picture, photograph (f) -£J^ 

piece, morsel (m) '£** 

place, station (m) f*U* 



Jf 



to place, to put irtl 



471 



to play (an instrument) 

to play Ihe role of x 

please, kindly (with h— • * ' forms) 

please, kindly (with r forms) 






£- J'&y i e- oy 



\ji 



pleased, contented; agreed 


iTh 


to be pleased with x 


in \fsj c 


pleasing (subject marked by y) (adjective) 


-«* 


choice, selection (f) (noun) 




plow (m) 


J 


poet(m) 


J& 


poetry (m) 


r 


pomp and gusto (f) 


f*U-J f$>3 


poor fellow (m) 


wfe 


poor person (m) 
possible 


w 

J 


past office (m) 


jzdb 


potato (m) 


tf 


to pour 


m 


poverty (f) 


&Pt&S 


praise (f) 


M 


to praise x 


t/a/ iT 



472 



Premchand - prominent author of Urdu-Hindi 



M 



narrative prose, d ied 1936 
president (m/f) 
to prevent 
price (f) 

prime minister (nVf) 
prince (m) 
principle (m) 
prison (m) 
profitable 
to protect 
purpose (m) 
to put 



JJS 

ftp 

V 

W 



qawwali - spiritual-mystical song recited by 

Muslim mystics in South Asia (f) 
queen (f) 
question (m) 
queue (f) 
quick; fast 
quiet 



jot// ji 

* 



473 



R 

rain(f) ^JJ^ 

to rain tx {Jjl 

to raise, nourish \^l 

Ramadan, Muslim holy month (m) 1\}\A* J 

to reach fc£» 

ready jfa 

reason (0 ,&) 

receipt (f) ^ v 

to recite namaz (Muslim ritiua! prayer) t^> Jl/ 

to recognize fc£ (^ 

Tt- 
red Jl) 

to reduce t 

to be reduced ^yi r 

regarding \JL <1—A <L- 

relationship / connection (m) £?-j 

relatives (family) (m) jkjfr'/ 

to remember U jl / tJ A 

to remember x tfj\, {J xi t-/> I fx 

to repeat ^A* 

request (f) if J 



474 



respected elder 



lo rest 
to return 



revered person 



Ja 



rest(m) fl 



J 



tffhf 

in return for x / instead of x ijZl — l «£_ 



Ja 

rice (m, pi.) tji lr 

rice w/ meat or vegetable (f) 0z-& 

rich j$ 

to rise fct/fef 

• 

river (m) Ivj 

road (m) Z*hlJ>J 



J/ 



room (m) 

round, circular, a circle (m) 

to run away from 

rupee (Indian/Pakistani currency) (m) ^sj 

Russia (m) \JtJ 

Russian O SJ 



475 



s 

salt(m) _X? 

Saturday; week (m) *^ 

to say, to speak fcj 

scanty \j^ 

scores of U¥% 

to scream, yell l^f* 

season (m) fy 

second , anoth er I -- y j 

lo see fcjT, 

see you soon (lit. we wil 1 meet again) ^*T y 1 ^ 

self (reflexive) j£ 

to sell fe% 

to send fcjrff 

servant (m) Jp 

service (0 ijf/o*jr 

several; some; a few \j 

sharp g 

sherbat (beverage) (m) ^ v 

shirt (f) J%* 

shoe (m) (T^ 



476 



shop, store (f) fcjl&j / fc/t# 

shopkeeper/store owner J){J %M l)b^}vJ 

shut up, be quiet ytj %—> 

to be shy, reticent tl/'V tyi oA^y^ 

sick, ill (adj.), sick person (m/f) J%- 

sickness, illness (f) U^fe 

sign, memento, souvenir (f) ylft / (m) c/l^, 

signature (m) A^J 



Sikh 



since when 
to sing 
sister (f) 



skill (m) 
skillful 



sly 



& 



silent l/J^U 



*/" 



c^ 



sister (0 L' l\3\l\S<k} 

to sit W? 






sky(m) (jfrl 



* 



slave (m) J*™ 

slave girl (0 Jf 

to sleep by 



477 



small 
to smile 
snow, ice (f) 
SO that 



spicy hoi 



H4 



A 

some; little; few \*Jl 

some; any (adj.) Sf 

someone/somebody / 1 f 

something £ 

sometimes , ft 

* 

sorrow (m) X 

sorrowful ^\±f 

sound (f) j^7 

soy venir (m) ^j^uj 

to speak, to talk, converse ifkZsl 

• 

special j*£ 

speech ^i 

speech (0 / if 

to give a speech f*Jj tf* 
to spend lime £ a 



spices (m) iJU-vJU' 



# 



478 



to start, to begin (intransitive) W U* A 

stately -*W# 

statement; speech, recital (f) r^ / 



splendid 

spoon/also sycophant (m) 

to spread 

star (m) 

to start, to begin (transitive) 



to stay, to live 
to stay awake 
to steal 



stool (excrement) (m) 



to stop, to wait; to stay 
storm (m) 
story (f> 
strange 



student (m/f) 
studies, education (f) 



Uj 



v£ 



stomach (m) *-££ 



£1 



to stop; to prevent ^ * J 



stroll, walk, tour, excursion (f) jC 

to stroll, to take a walk, to tour 



elk 



•> 



479 



to study, read t-tf*> 
stupid (m) J\ 

style (f) 1>J> 

success (f) ^J !•*&'' 

successful w U* o 

• 

Sufi - a Muslim mystic (m) $$* 

sugar (f) Jf 

suitable h-^t* 

Sunday (m) yiyi 

sunshine, heat of sun (f) wJ^> 

surprising, strange, wonderful w^ 
to swear by x tUl f* (J j 

sweet (adjective) UC^ 

sweets (f) J^ 



to sv, im 



swift, quick, hot (spicy), sharp '£ 



W 



sycophant (colloquial) (literally, spoon) (m) J[. 



** 



table (f) X 

to take til 

to take someone fck t— 



480 



to take care of x W\jA £> {jx 



tooth (m) 

to tell (to narrate) 

to tell, say (use with £Z—) 

temperament (f) 

temple (m) 

test, trial; examination (m) 

thanks (lit. kindness) (f) 

thanks (m) 



that is to say, i.e. 

theft (f) 

their 

there 



therefore 



J 



to take out, remove 

tall 

tea(f) 

tears (m) 

,o tease W» QUf» 






Sis* 



that, those M 

that, which, who (rel. pronoun and conjunction) J 






there (in that direction; thither) /^' 



481 



these days, nowadays if 7»."\ 

thief(m) v /- 

thing (concrete) (f) 



tiredness (f) 



thing, matter (abstract) (f) ^L 

to think £>^ 

thirst (f) j^ 

this, these j 

this much £ i 

thorn; fork (m) l^Y 

thought; idea, opinion (m) (Jt> 

thousands of 0* J ^j* 

throne (m) ^^ 
to throw 



Thursday (f) ijj, 1 >* 

tin ^ 

time (m) c3i 

time, age, world, fortune (m) ^j 

time (period of); period (m) {$j)5 

during this time/period \J^ \;)Sj)) \JfS f 



s 



today (m) £, ' 



482 



tomorrow; yesterday (m) 
to torment 
to tour 



toilet (m) -S£l 

m 

tomb (f) jf 

town (m) Jf 

toy (rn) Wf 

£ 



trash (m) 
to travel 
traveler (m/f) 
true (adj.); truth (m) 
to speak the truth 
truth (t) 
Tuesday (m) 



umbrella; canopy (f) 

under 

to understand 

unemployed 

university (f) 

until 



u 






#4l 



483 



* 

upset, displeased, unhappy tfijt 

to be / become upset, displeased etc. tfl (fht 

urine (m) , J*> 

use, employment (m) 0^1 

to use t/"j(^l 

to use x tf \)\r»"\ (T: 

to be used to/ habituated/accustomed to x t^f (/j U #x 

useful jj£> 



useless 



x 



vagabond, wanderer (m/f) ^^^T 

vegetable (f) ^C V- 

vegetarian (m/f) >j^ L^y^ 

vegetarian <Jvl!>l£ 

verse (of poetry) (m) A 3 

very ^ 

village (m) Jjlf 

voice (£) J/j / 

w 

to wait, to stop; to stay %jf 



waiting, expecting (m) j\& 



484 



to wait for x *J J&*\ : 

to wake up fcMf / W I 

to walk Wf 

wall(f> ^i*> 

to wash t J?) 

water (m) yt 

we p* 

wedding (0 J- 3 ^ 

Wednesday (m) ^-^ 

weight (m) fitil 



well, fine, okay 



what? 



for what reason, why? 



when? 
when 

where? 



Jt 



to become well wlf yt^Xf* 



what sort of, what kind of, how? ?£l /{f~ flc 



W 



where (in which direction)? • /* jJ 

where fjfl\M. 

which £ 

which one? vfuLft 0/ 

485 



white 



window (f) 



witness (m/f) 



to work 



M^ 



who? T^y 

whole \j\f 

why? yjj/ 
wicked \J t 



tt 



wife(f) 1^;/^* 

wind (f) />J 



rf/ 



wine, alcohol (f) u^X 

wit Joke (m) Q\J, 



M *? - 



to make fun of, to tease (Jljf (,Xa 
with (instrumental); from *- 

with (in the company of) J!\s> J_ 

without M i£) 



*r 



woman (f) *z*j? 

wonder (m) ^^ 

wonderful t_^f 

wonders (pi. m) ^/)§ 

word (1) ^L 

work (m) rf 



tfft 



486 



to work out (to exercise) ts \JfiJ9 

world (i) U 5 

worried gftftp/ 

worry (f) Ji 

M 

worse -/*.* 

worst c/^-V 

worthy of (use with oblique infinitive) i^WT <L- 

would that/if only C/ W 

wound (f) '■■■' -*? 



to write 



year (m) 



»4 



Ju 



yellow li$» 

yes U^ / 14 L? 

yet, still IT /^ 

yogurt (m) {j*-> 

yogurt drink (lassi) (f) 1/ 

you (least formal) 9 

you (informal) [ 

you (formal) ** ' 

young (adj.); youth (m/f) C-"-*" 



487 



youthfulness (f) $£ 

your (least formal) \j? 

your (informal) \j\{ 



your (formal) KlT/e »^ 



488 



zoo(m) ^ 1%